Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 94–101 | Cite as

Genetic basis of pre-harvest sprouting tolerance using single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses in bread wheat

  • P. L. Kulwal
  • R. Singh
  • H. S. Balyan
  • P. K. GuptaEmail author
Original Paper


Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) in bread wheat was conducted following single-locus and two-locus analyses, using data on a set of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative population grown in four different environments. Single-locus analysis following composite interval mapping (CIM) resolved a total of five QTLs with one to four QTLs in each of the four individual environments. Four of these five QTLs were also detected following two-locus analysis, which resolved a total of 14 QTLs including 8 main effect QTLs (M-QTLs), 8 epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) and 5 QTLs involved in QTL × environment (QE) or QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions, some of these QTLs being common. The analysis revealed that a major fraction (76.68%) of the total phenotypic variation explained for PHST is due to M-QTLs (47.95%) and E-QTLs (28.73%), and that only a very small fraction of variation (3.24%) is due to QE and QQE interactions. Thus, more than three-quarters of the genetic variation for PHST is fixable and would contribute directly to gains under selection. Two QTLs that were detected in more than one environment and at LOD scores above the threshold values were located on 3BL and 3DL presumably in the vicinity of the dormancy gene TaVp1. Another QTL was found to be located on 3B, perhaps in close proximity to the R gene for red grain colour. However, these associations of QTLs for PHST with genes for dormancy and grain colour are only suggestive. The results obtained in the present study suggest that PHST is a complex trait controlled by large number of QTLs, some of them interacting among themselves or with the environment. These QTLs can be brought together through marker-aided selection, leading to enhanced PHST.


Pre-harvest sprouting tolerance Bread wheat QTL analysis Epistasis 



Financial support from the NATP-ICAR, New Delhi for conducting this study is gratefully acknowledged. The award of Senior Research Fellowship by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to P.L.K. and that of a Senior Scientist position by the Indian National Science Academy (INSA) to P.K.G. facilitated this study. Thanks are due to Dr. R.P. Singh of CIMMYT, Mexico for the supply of seeds of ITMIpop, and to Professor Jun Zhu, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China for conducting two-locus QTL analysis. We are also grateful to G.B.P.U.A. & T., Pantnagar and P.A.U., Ludhiana, India for providing field facilities and for their help in conducting field trials. Critical reading and useful comments from three anonymous reviewers helped in the improvement of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Kulwal
    • 1
  • R. Singh
    • 1
  • H. S. Balyan
    • 1
  • P. K. Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingCh. Charan Singh UniversityMeerutIndia

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