Genetic Analysis of Neoplasia Induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea in Xiphophorus Hybrid Fish
Interspecific crosses within the genus Xiphophorus have historically been used to study the genetic aspects of melanoma formation. Melanomas typically occur as a result of deregulation of polymorphic, naturally occurring macromelanophore pigment patterns. Hybrid crosses also have been used to study the inducibility of melanoma by physical sources (such as UV light) and chemicals (such as N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU). We previously defined a genomic region that is implicated in fish melanomagenesis and identified a candidate tumor suppressor gene (CDKN2X) within this genomic area. Highly significant associations between BC1-hybrid CDKN2X genotypes and UV-induced melanoma formation exist in a backcross produced from 2 inbred parental lines. However, when BC1 hybrids are exposed to MNU as the tumor induction agent, a significant association between inheritance of CDKN2X alleles and tumor development is not observed. These data suggest there is mechanistic and genetic heterogeneity in melanomas derived from different etiologies within BC1 hybrid fish.