The Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) of Pacific Oysters Crassostrea gigas Is Upaccumulated During Infection by the Ostreid Herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1): an Indicator of the Warburg Effect
Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key mitochondrial protein. VDAC drives cellular energy metabolism by controlling the influx and efflux of metabolites and ions through the mitochondrial membrane, playing a role in its permeabilization. This protein exerts a pivotal role during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp, through its involvement in a particular metabolism that plays in favor of the virus, the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect corresponds to an atypical metabolic shift toward an aerobic glycolysis that provides energy for rapid cell division and resistance to apoptosis. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the Warburg effect occurs during infection by Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1). At present, the role of VDAC in the Warburg effect, OsHV-1 infection and apoptosis is unknown. Here, we developed a specific antibody directed against C. gigas VDAC. This tool allowed us to quantify the tissue-specific expression of VDAC, to detect VDAC oligomers, and to follow the amount of VDAC in oysters deployed in the field. We showed that oysters sensitive to a mortality event in the field presented an accumulation of VDAC. Finally, we propose to use VDAC quantification as a tool to measure the oyster susceptibility to OsHV-1 depending on its environment.
KeywordsVoltage-dependent anion channel Warburg effect Crassostrea gigas Ostreid herpes virus
We are grateful to Ifremer and the French ministry of agriculture for partly supporting this study. We acknowledge E. Harney for his help in editing English. The authors are grateful to Bruno Petton and the Ifremer staff involved in oyster and algae production Argenton for their help and delivery of animals used in the study. We thank the shellfish network Resco II (http://wwz.ifremer.fr/observatoire_conchylicole).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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