Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 554–563 | Cite as

A Single Injection of Hypertrophied Androgenic Gland Cells Produces All-Female Aquaculture

  • Tom Levy
  • Ohad Rosen
  • Brit Eilam
  • Dudu Azulay
  • Eliahu D. Aflalo
  • Rivka Manor
  • Assaf Shechter
  • Amir Sagi
Original Article


Monosex culture, common in animal husbandry, enables gender-specific management. Here, production of all-female prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was achieved by a novel biotechnology comprising three steps: (a) A single injection of suspended hypertrophied androgenic gland cells caused fully functional sex reversal of females into “neo-males” bearing the WZ genotype; (b) crossing neo-males with normal females (WZ) yielded genomically validated WW females; and (c) WW females crossed with normal males (ZZ) yielded all-female progeny. This is the first sustainable biotechnology for large-scale all-female crustacean aquaculture. The approach is particularly suited to species in which females are superior to males and offers seedstock protection, thereby ensuring a quality seed supply. Our technology will thus revolutionize not only the structure of the crustacean aquaculture industry but can also be applied to other sectors. Finally, the production of viable and reproducible females lacking the Z chromosome questions its role, with respect to sexuality.


All-female population Androgenic gland Appendix masculina Hypertrophied androgenic gland (hAG) cells Prawn Sex reversal 



We thank Ms. Ayana Benet-Perlberg and her team at the Ministry of Agriculture - Aquaculture Research Station, Dor, Israel, for housing the prawns during parts of this study. Funding for this study was provided by Enzootic Holdings, Ltd. and partially by United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund Grant IS-4493-12.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

A patent regarding functional sex reversal of decapod crustacean female is pending (PCT/IL2015/051,096).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Levy
    • 1
  • Ohad Rosen
    • 2
  • Brit Eilam
    • 2
  • Dudu Azulay
    • 2
  • Eliahu D. Aflalo
    • 1
  • Rivka Manor
    • 1
  • Assaf Shechter
    • 2
  • Amir Sagi
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.Enzootic HK, Ltd.KowloonHong Kong
  3. 3.The National Institute for Biotechnology in the NegevBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael

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