Phylogenetic Relationship and Secondary Metabolite Production of Marine Fungi Producing the Cyclodepsipeptides Scopularide A and B
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Strains originally affiliated to the genera Scopulariopsis and Microascus were compared regarding the scopularide production in order to investigate their ability to produce the cyclodepsipeptides and select the best suited candidate for subsequent optimisation processes. Phylogenetic calculations using available sequences of the genera Scopulariopsis and Microascus revealed that most of the sequences clustered within two closely related groups, comprising mainly Scopulariopsis/Microascus brevicaulis and Microascus sp., respectively. Interestingly, high yields of scopularide A were exhibited by three strains belonging to S./M. brevicaulis, while lower titres were observed for two strains of Microascus sp. Close phylogenetic distances within and between the two groups supported the proposed combination of both genera into one holomorph group. Short phylogenetic distances did not allow a clear affiliation at the species level on the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences, especially for Microascus sp. strains. Additionally, several sequences originating from strains assigned to Scopulariopsis exhibited a polyphyletic nature. The production pattern is in accordance with the phylogenetic position of the strains and significant production of scopularide B could only be observed for the S./M. brevicaulis strain LF580. Thus, the phylogenetic position marks the biotechnologically interesting strains and matters in optimisation strategies. In conclusion, the ability of all five strains to produce at least one of the scopularides suggests a distribution of the responsible gene cluster within the holomorph group. Setting the focus on the production of the cyclodepsipeptides, strain LF580 represents the best candidate for further strain and process optimisation.
KeywordsScopulariopsis/Microascus brevicaulis LF580 Microascus sp. Phylogeny of secondary metabolite producers Natural products Anamorph-teleomorph
The authors wish to thank Rolf Schmaljohann for microscopic analyses, and Jutta Wiese for the supply of preliminary obtained ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 and 18S rRNA gene sequences. Abhishek Kumar provided sequences from the complete genome data of LF580 for researching the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 fragment. Arlette Wenzel-Storjohann performed DNA isolation and conducted PCR for sequences analysis.
We thank the Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology in Kiel for providing Sanger sequencing as support in part by the DFG Cluster of Excellence “Inflammation at Interfaces” and “Future Ocean”. We thank the technicians S. Greve, S. Arndt and T. Henke for technical support.
This study was performed in the framework of the MARINE FUNGI, EU FP7 KBBE program, project no. 265926.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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