Algicidal Activity of Thiazolidinedione Derivatives Against Harmful Algal Blooming Species
- 491 Downloads
Thiazolidinedione (TD) derivatives exhibit algicidal activity against harmful algal blooming species such as Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, as reported previously. In this study, the efficacies and selectivities of TD derivatives were tested by analyzing the structure–activity relationships of various TD derivatives. To investigate structure–activity relationships for growth inhibition of harmful algae, we added a methylene group between the cyclohexyl ring and oxygen of 5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-TD, which decreased the inhibitory potency of compound 17. Interestingly, another addition of a methylene group significantly increased the inhibitory potency against C. polykrikoides. The addition of 1 μM compound 17 resulted in the cell rupture of harmful algae after less than 10 h incubation at 20 °C. Compound 17 was applied to both harmful and non-harmful algae and showed a drastic reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II, resulting in reduced photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Compound 17 at a 5 μM concentration destroyed all of the harmful algae, while algicidal activity against non-harmful algae did not exceed 30% of the control within the concentration range tested. In contrast, a herbicide, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, tested at a 5 μM concentration, exhibited 40–70% algicidal activity relative to that of the control against both harmful and non-harmful algae. Compound 17 is a promising lead compound for the development of algicides to control harmful algal blooming species.
KeywordsHarmful algal blooms Thiazolidinediones Algicides Photosynthetic inhibitor
This work was supported by the Pioneer Research Program for Converging Technology of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea (Grant No. M1071118001-08M1118-00110), and this work was partly supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (NRF-C1ABA001-2010-0020501).
- Imai I, Ishida Y, Sakaguchi K, Hata Y (1995) Algicidal marine-bacteria isolated from northern Hiroshima bay, Japan. Fish Sci 61:628–636Google Scholar
- Kim HG (1997) Recent harmful algal blooms and mitigation strategies in Korea. Ocean Res 19:185–192Google Scholar
- Kim JS, Kim JC, Lee S, Lee BH, Cho KY (2006) Biological activity of L-2-azetidinecarboxylic acid, isolated from Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum, against several algae. Aquat Bot 851–856Google Scholar
- Noi GH, Choi WJ, Chun YY (1996) A study on red tide control with loess suspension. Kor J Aquaculture 9:239–245Google Scholar
- Park YT, Park JB, Chyng SY, Song BC, Lim WA, Kim CH, Lee WJ (1998) Isolation and algicidal properties of Micrococcus sp. LG-1 possessing killing activity for harmful Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides. J Kor Fish Soc 31:767–773Google Scholar
- Ryu HY, Shim JM, Bang JD, Lee C (1998) Experimental chemical treatments for the control of dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides in the land-based culture of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Kor J Aquaculture 11:285–294Google Scholar
- Shanab SMM (2007) Bioactive allelo-chemical compounds from Oscillatoria species (Egyptian isolates). Int J Agri Biol 9:617–621Google Scholar
- Shirota A (1989) Red tide problem and countermeasures. Int J Aquat Fish Technol 1:195–223Google Scholar
- Yoshinaga I, Kawai T, Ishida Y (1997) Analysis of algicidal ranges of the bacteria killing the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium mikimotoi isolated from Tanabe Bay, Wakayama Pref., Japan. Fish Sci 63:94–98Google Scholar