Advertisement

Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 801–809 | Cite as

Morphological and Crystallographic Transformation from Immature to Mature Coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae

  • Kazuko SaruwatariEmail author
  • Seiji Nagasaka
  • Noriaki Ozaki
  • Hiromichi Nagasawa
Original Article

Abstract

Morphology and crystallographic orientations of coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae, at the various growth stages were investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM) stereo-photogrammetry to understand the developments of two different coccolith units, namely V and R units. SEM observation indicates that the immature coccolith units at the earliest stage were not perfectly fixed on the organic base plates and several units were often lacked. The all units showed platy morphology and often lay parallel to the organic base plate. Their crystal orientations were close to that of the mature R units. With further growth, the platy morphology changes to a trapezoid to anvil-shape for both units, resulting in the interlocking structure of VR units. Morphological analyses present that the edges of the platy crystals parallel to the organic base plate were estimated as \(<48\;\overline 1>\), and their inner/upper surfaces were estimated as \( \{ 10\;\overline 1 \,4\} \). As they interlocked further, R units inclined more outward to develop the inner tube elements with \( \{ 10\;\overline 1 \,4\} \) and then each unit develops differently distal and proximal shield elements, which are respectively estimated as \( \{ 10\;\overline 1 \,4\} \) in the distal view and \( \{ 2\,\overline 1 \;\overline 1 \,0\} \) planes in the proximal view. Based on the above results, the formation of different coccolith units and their growth were discussed.

Keywords

Biomineralization Coccolith SEM-EBSD Calcite 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for scientific research (No. 17GS0311) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. KS greatly thank Associate Prof. Kogure at the University of Tokyo.

References

  1. Bown PR, Young JR (1998) Introduction. In: Bown PR (ed) Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy. Champman & Hall, London, pp 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. De Yoreo JJ, Wierzbicki A, Dove PM (2007) New insights into mechanisms of biomolecular control on growth of inorganic crystals. CrystEngComm 9:1144–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Didymus JM, Young JR, Mann S (1994) Construction and morphogenesis of the chiral ultrastructure of coccoliths from the marine alga Emiliania huxleyi. Proc R Soc Lond B258:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eppley RW, Holmes RW, Stickland JDH (1967) Sinking rate of marine phytoplankton measured with a fluorometer. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 1:191–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Henriksen K, Stipp SLS, Young JR, Bown PR (2003) Tailoring calcite: nanoscale AFM of coccolith biocrystals. Am Mineral 88:2040–2044Google Scholar
  6. Henriksen K, Stipp SLS, Young JR, Marsh ME (2004) Biological control on calcite crystallization: AFM investigation of coccolith polysaccharide function. Am Mineral 89:1709–1716Google Scholar
  7. Kayano K, Saruwatari K, Kogure T, Shiraiwa Y (2010) Effect of coccolith polysaccharides isolated from the coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi, on calcite crystal formation in in vitro CaCO3 crystallization. Mar Biotechnol. doi: 10.1007/s10126-010-9272-4
  8. Mann S, Sparks NHC (1988) Single crystalline nature of coccolith elements of the marine alga Emiliania huxleyi as determined by electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Proc R Soc Lond B234:441–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marsh ME (1999) Coccolith crystals of Pleurochrysis carterae: crystallographic faces, organization, and development. Protoplasma 207:54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marsh ME (2003) Regulation of CaCO3 formation in coccolithophores. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 136:743–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marsh ME, Chang DK, King GC (1992) Isolation and characterization of a novel acidic polysaccharide containing tartrate and glyoxylate residues from the mineralized scales of a unicellular coccolithophorid alaga Pleurochrysis carterae. J Biol Chem 267:20507–20512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Marsh ME, Dickinson DP (1997) Polyanion-mediated mineralization-mineralization in coccolithophore (Pleurochrysis carterae) variants which do not express PS2, the most abundant and acidic mineral-associated polyanion in wild-type cells. Protoplasma 199:9–17Google Scholar
  13. Marsh ME, Ridall AL, Azadi P, Duke PJ (2002) Galacturonomannan and Golgi-derived membrane liked to growth and shaping of biogenic calcite. J Struct Biol 139:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meldrum FC, Colfen H (2008) Controlling mineral morphologies and structures in biological and synthetic systems. Chem Rev 108:4332–4432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pienaar RN (1994) Ultrastructure and calcification of coccolithophores. In: Winter A, Siesser WG (eds) Coccolithophores. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 13–37Google Scholar
  16. Saruwatari K, Ozaki N, Nagasawa H, Kogure T (2006) Crystallographic alignments in a coccolith (Pleurochrysis carterae) revealed by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Am Mineral 91:1937–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Saruwatari K, Akai J, Fukumori Y, Ozaki N, Nagasawa H, Kogure T (2008a) Crystal orientation analyses of biominerals using Kikuchi patterns in TEM. J Mineral Petrol Sci 103:16–22Google Scholar
  18. Saruwatari K, Ozaki N, Nagasawa H, Kogure T (2008b) Comparison of crystallographic orientations between living (Emilinia huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica) and fossil (Watznaueria barnesiae) coccoliths uding electron microscopes. Am Mineral 93:1670–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. van Emberg PR, de Jong EW, Daems WT (1986) Immunochemical localization of a polysaccharide from biomineral structures (coccoliths) of Emilinia huxleyi. J Ultrastruct Mol Struct Res 94:246–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yang M, Stipp SLS, Harding J (2008) Biological control on calcite crystallization by polysaccharides. Cryst Growth Des 8:4066–4074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Young JR, Henriksen K (2003) Biomineralization within vesicles: the calcite of coccoliths. Rev Mineral Geochem 54:189–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Young JR, Didymus JM, Bown PR, Prins B, Mann S (1992) Crystal assembly and phylogenetic evolution in heterococcoliths. Nature 356:516–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Young JR, Bergen JA, Bown PR, Burnett JA, Fiorentino A, Jordan RW, Kleijne A, van Niel BE, Romein AJT, von Salis K (1997) Guidelines for coccolith and calcareous nannofossil terminology. Palaeontology 40:875–912Google Scholar
  24. Young JR, Davis SA, Bown PR, Mann S (1999) Coccolith ultrastructure and biomineralization. J Struct Biol 126:195–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuko Saruwatari
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Seiji Nagasaka
    • 2
  • Noriaki Ozaki
    • 3
  • Hiromichi Nagasawa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of ScienceThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresource SciencesAkita Prefectural UniversityAkita CityJapan
  4. 4.National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, Softchemistry GroupTsukuba CityJapan

Personalised recommendations