UV-A Mediated Modulation of Photosynthetic Efficiency, Xanthophyll Cycle and Fatty Acid Production of Nannochloropsis
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Nannochloropsis, a green microalga, is a source for commercially valuable compounds as extensively described and, in particular, is recognised as a good potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ϖ3), an important polyunsaturated fatty acid for human consumption for prevention of several diseases. Climate change might include variation in the ultraviolet (UV) levels as one of the consequences derived from the anthropogenic activity. This paper shows the response of Nannochloropsis cultures exposed for 7 days to UV-A (320–400 nm) added to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm). Growth rates and photosynthetic activity were assessed to determine the impact of UV-A increased levels on the cell growth and basic metabolism activity. Xanthophyll pigments (zeaxanthin and violaxanthin), carotenoids (canthaxanthin and β-carotene) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids) were measured for assessing the antioxidant response of the microalgae to added UV-A radiation to PAR. The results show that the modulated use of UV-A radiations can lead to increased growth rates, which are sustained in time by an increased light transduction activity. The expected antioxidant response to the incident UV-A radiation consisted of increases in zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents—synthesis of antioxidant carotenoids—and increases in the saturated fatty acids to polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio. The results suggest that modulated UV-A radiation can be used as a tool to stimulate value molecules accumulation in microalgae through an enhanced both light transduction process and antioxidant response, while sustaining cell growth.
KeywordsMicroalgae Nannochloropsis UV-A Xanthophyll cycle Fatty acids
This work has been supported by Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia of Spain (Proyecto AGL2006-12741), Junta de Andalucía (Proyectos de Excelencia, AGR-4337) and Instituto Andaluz de Biotecnología (Programa BIOÁNDALUS).
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