Proteomic Profiling of Liver from Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Genetically Modified Soy Compared to the Near-Isogenic non-GM Line
- 323 Downloads
The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in liver protein expression of Atlantic salmon fed genetically modified (GM) Roundup Ready® soy at a high inclusion level (25% inclusion, constituting 21% of crude protein in the diet) for 7 months or a compositionally similar non-GM diet. The liver was selected as the target organ due to its importance in the general metabolism, and 2D gel electrophoresis used as a screening tool. Samples from 12 individual fish from each diet group were evaluated. Of a total of 781 analysed protein spots, only 36 were significantly different by ANOVA (p < 0.05) in abundance between the diet groups. All these spots had low fold differences (1.2–1.6) and high false discovery rate (q = 0.44), indicating minor differences in liver protein synthesis between fish fed GM and non-GM soy. Additionally, low fold differences were observed. Four protein spots were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and identified using a combination of online searches in NCBI and searches in an inhouse database containing salmonid expressed sequence tags and contigs. Follow-up on these proteins by real-time polymerase chain reaction did not identify differences at the transcriptional level.
KeywordsAtlantic salmon Biotechnology Genetic modification Liver Roundup Ready® soybean
We would like to thank the Monsanto Company (St. Louis, MO, USA) for supplying the RRS® as well as the near-isogenic maternal soybeans. We would also like to thank Ivar Helge Matre for technical assistance and Lise Dyrhovden for care of the fish during the feeding trial. Further, many thanks to Evelyn Argo and Elizabeth C. Stewart at the Aberdeen Proteome Facility for much appreciated help with the gels and protein identifications, respectively. The project was supported by the Norwegian Research Council, grant no. 172151. Work carried out at Aberdeen Proteome Facility is supported in part by a grant from the BBSRC.
- Fao (2005) Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 457. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- James C (2007) Executive summary: global status of commercialized Biotech/GM crops. ISAAA, Ithaca ISAAA Brief 37Google Scholar
- Kaushik SJ, Hemre G-I (2008) Plant proteins as alternative sources for fish feed and farmed fish quality. In: Lie Ø (ed) Improving farmed fish quality and safety. CRC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Morin PP, Hara TJ, Eales JG (1993) Thyroid hormone deiodination in brain, liver, gill, heart and muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during photoperiodically-induced parr-smolt transformation, I. Outer- and inner-ring thyroxine deiodination. Gen Comp Endocrinol 90:142–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- NRC (1993) Nutrient requirement of fish. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Sissener NH, Sanden M, Bakke AM, Kroghdahl Å, and Hemre GI (2009) A long term trial with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified soy; focusing general health and performance before, during and after the parr-smolt transformation. Aquaculture 294:108–117Google Scholar
- Tacon AGJ (1987) The nutrition and feeding of farmed fish and shrimp—a training manual: 1. the essential nutrients. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Brazil GPC/RLA/075/ITAGoogle Scholar