Isolation and Characterization of Two Groups of Novel Marine Bacteria Producing Violacein
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Thirteen strains of novel marine bacteria producing a purple pigment were isolated from the Pacific coast of Japan. They were divided into two groups based on their 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, and both groups of bacteria belonged to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. The UV-visible spectrum of the pigment was identical to those of violacein, a pigment produced by several species of bacteria including Chromobacterium violaceum, an opportunistic pathogen. Further analysis of the chemical structure of the pigment by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the pigment was violacein. The high purity of violacein in the crude extract enabled us to employ simple and nonpolluting procedures to purify the pigment. Isolated bacteria may be useful as a C. violaceum substitute for the safe production of violacein.
Keywordspigment Pseudoalteromonas violacein
We thank Professors Masaoki Furue, Kazuya Kobiro and Takahiro Hosokawa of the Kochi University of Technology for their valuable discussions and encouragement. We also thank Ms. Kimi Minami, Mr. Zhao Yong Bian, and Mr. Tomoki Shirai for their assistance during NMR and IR experiments.
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