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Probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 attenuates hippocampal apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats

  • Ghazaleh Mohammadi
  • Leila Dargahi
  • Taghi Naserpour
  • Yazdan Mirzanejad
  • Safar Ali Alizadeh
  • Amir PeymaniEmail author
  • Marjan Nassiri-AslEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

In recent years, the beneficial impact of targeted gut microbiota manipulation in various neurological disorders has become more evident. Therefore, probiotics have been considered as a promising approach to modulate brain gene expression and neuronal pathways even in some neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic biotherapy with combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 on the expression levels of proteins critical to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed rats. Four groups of animals (Control, LPS, Probiotic + LPS, and Probiotic) were treated with maltodextrin (placebo) or probiotic (109 CFU/ml/rat) for 2 weeks by gavage. On the 15th day, a single intraperitoneal dose of saline or LPS (1 mg/kg) was injected and 4 h later, protein assessment was performed by western blotting in hippocampal tissues. LPS significantly increased the Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cleaved caspase-3 expression along with decreased the Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 protein levels. However, probiotic pretreatment (L. helveticus R0052 + B. longum R0175) significantly downregulated the Bax and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio accompanied with upregulated Bcl-2 expression. Prophylactic treatment with these bacteria also attenuated LPS-induced caspase-3 activation by remarkably increasing the expression of procaspase-3 while reducing the level of cleaved caspase-3 in target tissues. Our data indicate that probiotic formulation (L. helveticus R0052 + B. longum R0175) alleviated hippocampal apoptosis induced by LPS in rats via the gut-brain axis and suggest that this probiotic could play a beneficial role in some neurodegenerative conditions.

Keywords

Gut microbiota manipulation Probiotic Apoptosis Lipopolysaccharide Neurodegenerative disease Gut-brain axis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to NeuroBiology and Neuroscience Research Centers, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, for scientific and technical support. This study was carried out as part of Ghazaleh Mohammadi’s PhD thesis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Molecular MedicineQazvin University of Medical SciencesQazvinIran
  2. 2.NeuroBiology Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Medical Microbiology Research CenterQazvin University of Medical SciencesQazvinIran
  4. 4.Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  5. 5.Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of PharmacologyQazvin University of Medical SciencesQazvinIran

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