Stability of bacterial populations in tropical soil upon exposure to Lindane
The effect of the pesticide Lindane on microbial populations was analyzed in soil with a history of contamination with various chemicals, including this pesticide. Soil microcosms were amended with 100 mg Lindane/kg soil and microbial populations were monitored for 70 days. Bacterial cell concentrations, metabolic versatility (whole community Biolog), and genetic diversity (16S rDNA/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were used to monitor microbial communities. Results show the persistence of Lindane in the soil environment; at the end of the experiment, 70% of the added Lindane remained undegraded. A reduction of 50% in bacterial cell concentration was observed in Lindane-amended microcosms during the 2nd week of the experiment. This reduction was correlated with a reduction in the rate of substrate utilization as observed by Biolog. Overall, no effect of Lindane was observed on the metabolic versatility and genetic diversity in these soils, demonstrating the ability of these bacterial populations to tolerate the pressure caused by the addition of pesticides.
KeywordsLindane Organochlorinated pesticides Soil microbiology
We thank Johana Santamaria and Giomar Rivera for their comments on the manuscript. This project was funded by a grant from NASA-IRA and an RCMI grant to the University of Puerto Rico.
- 1.Atlas R (1986) Microbial diversity. Adv Microb Ecol 5:1–25Google Scholar
- 2.Bloem J, Blhuis P, Veninga M, Wieringa J (1998). Microscopic methods for counting bacteria and fungi in soil. In: Alef K, Nannipieri P (eds) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 5.Garland JL (1996) Analytical approach to the characterization of samples of microbial communities using patterns of potential C source utilization. Soil Biol Biochem 28:213–221Google Scholar
- 7.Garland JL, Mills AL (1991) Classification and characterization of heterotrophic microbial communities on the basis of patterns of community-level sole-carbon-source utilization. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2351–2359Google Scholar
- 12.McCaig AE, Glover LA, Prosser JI (2001) Numerical analysis of grassland bacterial community structure under different management regimens by using 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding patterns. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4554–4559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Tilman D (1996) Biodiversity: population versus ecosystem stability. Ecology 77:350–363Google Scholar
- 25.Toyota K, Ritz K, Kuninaga S, Kimura M (1999) Impacts of fumigation with meta-sodium upon soil microbial community structure in two Japanese soils. Soil Sci Plant Nutr Soil 45:207–223Google Scholar
- 26.Vogel TM, Cérémonie-Farhane H, Siminet P (2001) Bioremediation of lindane—natural microorganisms, indigenous genes and bioaugmentation. In: Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 26–31 August 2001, TU.084abstract, p 148Google Scholar