Combination of L1 methylation and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as prognostic marker in advanced gastric cancer
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High density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) is known to be associated with prolonged survival time, whereas tumoral-L1 hypomethylation has been associated with shortened survival time in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Since L1-methylation level is high in lymphocytes, higher density of TIL could lead to higher measurement of L1-methylation level in cancer tissues which contain cancer cells as well as non-neoplastic cells, including TIL. Putative interaction of TIL in the relationship between L1-methylation level and survival led us to explore combinatory statuses of tumoral-L1-methylation level and TIL density as a prognostic marker in GC.
TIL and tumoral-L1-methylation level were measured in advanced GC samples (n = 491), using CD3 immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing-methylation analysis, respectively. TIL density was measured in tumor center and invasive front areas.
TIL density correlated with tumoral-L1-methylation level but the relationship was weak. Combinatory statuses of L1-methylation level and CD3 TIL density were found to be statistically significant in survival analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the relationship between combinatory statuses and survival was independent. Prognostic value of the combinatory statuses at invasive front was significant in an independent set.
Our findings indicate that tumoral-L1-methylation level is correlated with TIL density and that combinatory statuses might help to find a subset of GCs with worse clinical outcome in GCs with low-L1-methylation status or a subset of GCs with better clinical outcome in GCs with high-L1-methylation status.
KeywordsT lymphocyte L1 element Gastric cancer Prognosis
This work was funded by a Grant from the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2016M3A9B6026921), a Grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute funded by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare (HI14C1277), and a Grant from SNUH Research Fund [0420180210 (2018-1212)], and Seegene Medical Foundation Scholarship fund (Grant no. 2019-001).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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