Advertisement

Gastric Cancer

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1081–1085 | Cite as

Gastric cancer mortality rates among US and foreign-born persons: United States 2005–2014

  • Benjamin D. Hallowell
  • Meheret Endeshaw
  • Virginia Senkomago
  • Hilda Razzaghi
  • Matthew T. McKenna
  • Mona SaraiyaEmail author
Short Communication
  • 270 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Historically, foreign-born individuals in the US have had an elevated risk of dying from gastric cancer when compared to US-born individuals. This is primarily due to factors that occur prior to their immigration to the US, including diet and underlying risk of H. pylori infection.

Methods

National mortality data from 2005 to 2014 were obtained from the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. Annual population estimates were obtained from the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey for foreign-born and US-born persons. Age-adjusted gastric cancer mortality rates and rate ratios (RR) were calculated stratified by birth place, age, race/ethnicity, and geographic location.

Results

From 2005 to 2014, 111,718 deaths from malignant gastric cancer occurred in the US, of which 24,583 (22%) occurred among foreign-born individuals. Overall, foreign-born individuals had higher mortality rates compared with US-born individuals (RR 1.82; 95% CI 1.80, 1.85) and this difference remained after stratifying by sex, age, and geographic location. However, this finding was primarily driven by the low rate of gastric cancer mortality among US-born whites, with similar mortality rates observed among all other foreign-born and US-born groups. Gastric cancer mortality rates significantly decreased during the study period overall (AAPC − 2.50; 95% CI − 3.21, − 1.79) with significant declines observed among US-born (AAPC − 2.81; 95% CI − 3.55, − 2.07) and the foreign-born (AAPC − 2.53; 95% CI − 3.20, − 1.86) population.

Conclusions

Efforts directed at reducing the prevalence of gastric cancer risk factors could help reduce the elevated burden observed among foreign-born individuals and US-born minority groups.

Keywords

Gastric cancer Mortality Immigrants United States 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and animals

The article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Fitzmaurice C, et al. The global burden of cancer 2013. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1(4):505–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Compare D, Rocco A, Nardone G. Risk factors in gastric cancer. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14(4):302–8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stewart B, Wild CP. World cancer report 2014. 1. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Plummer M, et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: a synthetic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4(9):e609–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hooi JK, et al. Global prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(2):420–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer statistics: 1999–2015 incidence and mortality web-based report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, Editor; 2018.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Singh GK, Hiatt RA. Trends and disparities in socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics, life expectancy, and cause-specific mortality of native-born and foreign-born populations in the United States, 1979–2003. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(4):903–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh GK, Miller BA. Health, life expectancy, and mortality patterns among immigrant populations in the United States. Can J Public Health. 2004;95(3):14–21.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Singh GK, Siahpush M. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of immigrants and native born in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(3):392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    El-Serag HB, et al. Houston consensus conference on testing for Helicobacter pylori infection in the United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16(7):992–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singh GK, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Kogan MD. Immigrant health inequalities in the United States: use of eight major national data systems. Sci World J. 2013;2013:512313.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/512313.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Surveillance Research Program National Cancer Institute. SEER*Prep software. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 2016.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Surveillance Research Program National Cancer Institute. SEER*Stat software. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 2017.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grad YH, Lipsitch M, Aiello AE. Secular trends in Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in adults in the United States: evidence for sustained race/ethnic disparities. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;175(1):54–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rizo-Ríos P, et al. Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico: 1990–2012. Revista Médica Del Hospital General De México. 2015;78(2):85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim GH, et al. Screening and surveillance for gastric cancer in the United States: is it needed? Gastrointest Endosc. 2016;84(1):18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford AC, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to prevent gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic infected individuals: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Bmj. 2014;348:g3174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leung WK, et al. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(3):279–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chey WD, et al. ACG clinical guideline: treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112(2):212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miki K. Gastric cancer screening by combined assay for serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody and serum pepsinogen levels—“ABC method”. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B. 2011;87(7):405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cancer Prevention and ControlCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Emory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations