Advertisement

Oncological safety of proximal gastrectomy for T2/T3 proximal gastric cancer

  • Masahiro Yura
  • Takaki Yoshikawa
  • Sho Otsuki
  • Yukinori Yamagata
  • Shinji Morita
  • Hitoshi Katai
  • Toshirou Nishida
  • Takaki YoshiakiEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Background

It remains unclear whether total gastrectomy is necessary for patients with proximal T2/T3 gastric cancer. To explore the oncological safety of proximal gastrectomy for proximal T2/T3 gastric cancer, in this study, we evaluated the metastatic rates in and the therapeutic effect of dissection of key distal lymph node stations that are usually excluded in proximal gastrectomy.

Methods

In this study, we examined 202 patients seen between January 2000 and December 2012, who underwent total gastrectomy with lymph node dissection (D1/D1+/D2; 2/17/183) and was pathologically diagnosed as T2/T3 gastric cancer exclusively located in the upper third of the stomach. The theoretical therapeutic necessity of dissecting lymph nodes at each lymph node station was evaluated based on the therapeutic index calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis at each station and the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis to that station.

Results

The 5-year overall survival rate (95% confidence interval) was 72.9% (65.5–80.3). The metastatic rates at #4d and #12a were very low (0.99% and 0.006%, respectively), and those at #5 and #6 were zero, and therapeutic indices for #4d, #5, #6 and #12a were zero. On the other hand, the most frequent metastatic station was #3, followed by #1, #2 and #7 (overall metastatic rate > 12%), which was consistent with the order of the therapeutic indices.

Conclusions

Considering the nodal stations that need to be dissected, proximal gastrectomy would be the choice and oncologically safe for patients with T2/T3 proximal gastric cancer.

Keywords

Proximal gastrectomy Proximal gastric cancer Therapeutic effect 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to this article.

Ethical approval

This study was conducted with the approval of the National Cancer Center Hospital Ethical Committee (No: 2017-077).

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(5):E359–E386.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210. (Epub 2014/09/16).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dassen AE, Lemmens VE, van de Poll-Franse LV, Creemers GJ, Brenninkmeijer SJ, Lips DJ, et al. Trends in incidence, treatment and survival of gastric adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2007: a population-based study in the Netherlands. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(6):1101–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2010.0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deans C, Yeo MS, Soe MY, Shabbir A, Ti TK, So JB. Cancer of the gastric cardia is rising in incidence in an Asian population and is associated with adverse outcome. World J Surg. 2011;35(3):617 – 24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0935-0. (Epub 2011/01/05).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takiguchi N, Takahashi M, Ikeda M, Inagawa S, Ueda S, Nobuoka T, et al. Long-term quality-of-life comparison of total gastrectomy and proximal gastrectomy by postgastrectomy syndrome assessment scale (PGSAS-45): a nationwide multi-institutional study. Gastric Cancer. 2015;18(2):407–16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-014-0377-8. (Epub 2014/05/08).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wen L, Chen XZ, Wu B, Chen XL, Wang L, Yang K, et al. Total vs. proximal gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59(114):633–40.  https://doi.org/10.5754/hge11834. (Epub 2012/02/14).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahn SH, Lee JH, Park DJ, Kim HH. Comparative study of clinical outcomes between laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy (LAPG) and laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) for proximal gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2013;16(3):282–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-012-0178-x. (Epub 2012/07/24).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Japanese Gastric Cancer A. Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines 2014 (ver. 4). Gastric Cancer. 2017;20(1):1–19. Epub 2016/06/28.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-016-0622-4. PubMed PMID: 27342689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5215069 Phamaceutical, Sanofi, Merck Serono, Yakult Honsha, Daiichi Sankyo, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Johnson & Johnson, Asahi Kasei Pharma, Eli Lilly Japan, Pfizer Japan, AJINOMOTO Pharmaceuticals, ONO Pharmaceutical and Kaken Pharmaceutical and grants from Covidien Japan, Shionogi, Bristol Myers Squib, Japan Blood Products Organization, Torii Pharmaceutical, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, bbVie GK, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Yoshindo, Eizai, Abbott Japan, CSL Behring, Teijin Pharma, Tsumura, Nippon Kayaku, Miyarisan Pharmaceutical, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Japan, KCI, Toyama Chemical, Maruho, Hogy Medical and MSD, outside the submitted work. Dr. Sano reports personal fees from Chugai Phamaceutical, Covidien Japan, Eli Lilly Japan, Johnson & Johnson, Olympus, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Taiho Pharmaceutical and Yakult Honsha.
  8. 8.
    Sasako MMP, Kinoshita T, Maruyama K. New method to evaluate the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection for gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 1995;82:346–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Association JGC. Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma. 15th ed. Tokyo: Kanehara Publisher; 2017.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sakuramoto S, Sasako M, Yamaguchi T, Kinoshita T, Fujii M, Nashimoto A, Furukawa H, Nakajima T, Ohashi Y, Imamura H, Higashino M, Yamamura Y, Kurita A, Arai K, for the ACTS-GC Group. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1810–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Control UfIC. TNM classification of Malignant Tumors Eighth ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ooki AYK, Kikuchi S, Sakuramoto S, Katada N, Hutawatari N, Watanabe M. Clinical significance of total gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer. Anticancer Res. 2008(28):2875–84.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haruta S, Shinohara H, Hosogi H, Ohkura Y, Kobayashi N, Mizuno A, et al. Proximal gastrectomy with exclusion of no. 3b lesser curvature lymph node dissection could be indicated for patients with advanced upper-third gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2017;20(3):528 – 35.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-016-0624-2. (Epub 2016/07/06).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Niihara M, Takeuchi H, Nakahara T, Saikawa Y, Takahashi T, Wada N, et al. Sentinel lymph node mapping for 385 gastric cancer patients. J Surg Res. 2016;200(1):73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.06.064. (Epub 2015/08/04).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masahiro Yura
    • 1
  • Takaki Yoshikawa
    • 1
  • Sho Otsuki
    • 1
  • Yukinori Yamagata
    • 1
  • Shinji Morita
    • 1
  • Hitoshi Katai
    • 1
  • Toshirou Nishida
    • 1
  • Takaki Yoshiaki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Gastric SurgeryNational Cancer Center HospitalTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations