Role of staging laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage cytology in the treatment of locally advanced gastric cancer
More accurate preoperative staging is necessary to determine the treatment strategy for locally advanced gastric cancer. Laparoscopy has been suggested as an appropriate staging modality. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of staging laparoscopy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.
One hundred patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma underwent laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage cytology. The disease stages determined were compared with those obtained by conventional methods.
The disease stages were corrected after laparoscopy for 47 of the 100 patients (47%), with downstaging in 3 (3.0%) and upstaging in 44 (44%). Peritoneal deposits were found in 7 patients with peritoneal dissemination diagnosed by conventional examination. An unsuspected peritoneal deposit was found in 21 of 93 patients (22.6%), and unsuspected free cancer cells without deposits were found in 27 of 93 patients (29.0%). Gastrectomy after staging laparoscopy was performed in 39 patients. Laparoscopy showed no peritoneal deposits in any of these patients. Free cancer cells were found in 9 patients (23.1%), but 4 of these had peritoneal deposits at operation. R0 resection was performed in 34 of the 39 patients (87.2%). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy after staging laparoscopy was performed in 35 patients. All 35 patients underwent gastrectomy, which resulted in 27 R0 and 8 R2 resections. Of 18 patients with positive cytology at laparoscopy, 11 had no free cancer cells at operation. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induced downstaging of the disease in 11 of the 18 patients with positive cytology (61.1%). Of 26 patients with massive peritoneal deposits, 4 underwent palliative resection because of pyloric stenosis. Twenty-two patients (22.0%) were able to avoid unnecessary laparotomy because of the staging laparoscopy.
Staging laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage cytology is a safe, effective tool in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer, especially in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Key wordsGastric cancer Staging laparoscopy Peritoneal lavage cytology
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