The endoscopic evaluation of gastritis, gastric remnant residue, and the incidence of secondary cancer after pylorus-preserving and transverse gastrectomies
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Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) and transverse gastrectomy (TrG) have been accepted as function-preserving procedures for node-negative early gastric cancer. It is believed that a better quality of life is guaranteed after PPG or TrG compared to that after distal subtotal gastrectomy (DSG) with Billroth type-I reconstruction. However, objective evaluations of the gastric remnant following gastrectomy have not been widely reported, and the real advantages and disadvantages of PPG or TrG over DSG remain unclear. Moreover, the risk of secondary cancer after PPG or TrG is uncertain.
Between 1991 and 2000, 834 DSGs were carried out in our institute for preoperatively diagnosed patients with early gastric cancer. The degree of residual gastritis and the amount of diet residue in the gastric remnant were evaluated by annual gastrointestinal endoscopic investigations prospectively for 72 patients after PPG, 95 patients after TrG, and 60 patients after DSG. These analyses were performed using the RGB classification (residue, gastritis, bile). The incidence of disease greater than or equal to grade 2 was calculated, and the time trends of the incidence for each procedure were also studied for 3 years after gastrectomy. In addition, secondary cancer cases in the gastric remnant mucosa were checked for each procedure during this period, and the incidence of secondary cancer after each operation was calculated.
The incidence of gastritis, of grade 2 or more, found in the gastric remnant was significantly lower after PPG (1.4%) and TrG (2.1%) than after DSG (43.3%). However, the incidence of moderate or greater residue in the gastric remnant, grade 2 or more, was significantly higher after PPG (45.8%) and TrG (40.0%) than after DSG (11.7%). The analysis of time trends of gastritis and diet residue reflected the significant advantage or disadvantage for each procedure 1 year after surgery. The analysis also included these factors without consideration of elapsed time following surgery. Two patients after PPG (2.8%) and three patients after TrG (3.2%) developed secondary cancer in the gastric remnant. No DSG-treated patient showed new cancer genesis in the remaining stomach.
PPG and TrG have the advantage over DSG in preventing postoperative gastritis in the gastric remnant. On the other hand, moderate or greater diet residue in the gastric remnant is more common after PPG or TrG than after DSG. For the risk of carcinogenesis in the remnant gastric mucosa, we could not conclude that there was any apparent difference between these range-limited gastrectomies and conventional DSG. Further study is necessary to determine the significant advantages and disadvantages of using PPG or TrG.