Chinese Journal of Polymer Science

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 72–81 | Cite as

Synergistic effects of novolac-based char former with a phosphorus/nitrogen-containing flame retardant in polyamide 6

  • Wei-cheng Xiong
  • Li Chen (陈力)Email author
  • De-yi Wang
  • Fei Song
  • Yu-zhong Wang (王玉忠)Email author


The synergistic effect of phosphorus oxynitride (PON) with a novolac-based char former modified by salification (NA-metal salt) on the flame retardance of polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated. For this purpose, various flame-retardant PA6 systems were melt-compounded with PON, PON/NA, PON/NA-V2O5 and PON/NA-Fe2O3, and their flame retardance was evaluated by measuring the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values and UL-94 vertical burning ratings. The results showed that, compared with the PA6/PON/NA system, the combination of two char formers (NA-V2O5, NA-Fe2O3) with PON could obviously improve the char formation and flame retardance of PA6. The flame retardance and cone calorimetric analyses showed the stronger synergism as well as the better flame retardant performance of PON/NA-Fe2O3 flame retardant system. The effects of different char formers on the flame retardance and thermal stability of this system were also discussed.


Polyamide Flame retardance Novolac resin Synergistic effect 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ramani, A., Hagen, M., Hereid, J., Zhang, J.P., Bakirtzis, D. and Delichatsios, M., Fire Mater., 2009, 33(6): 273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schartel, B. and Braun, U., Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2004, 20(3): 152Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xia, L., Wang, H.L., Shentu, B.Q. and Weng, Z.X., Chinese J. Polym. Sci., 2010, 28(5): 753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freudenthaler, E., Brand, A., Sterzei, H-J., Englmann, J. and Klatt, M., 2004, E.P. Pat., 1.292.638Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miller, M.C. and Sha, R.A., J. Chem. Soc., 1963, 38: 3233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sommer, K., 1979, G.B. Pat., 1.461.615Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sergei, V., Levchik, G.F., Balabanovich, L.A., Weil, E.D. and Martin, K., Angew. Makromol. Chem., 1999, 264(7): 48Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levchik, G.F, Grigoriev, Y.V., Balabanovic, A.I., Levchik, S.V. and Klatt, M., Polym. Int., 2000, 49(10): 1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fei, G.X., Liu, Y. and Wang, Q., Polym. Degrad. Stab., 2008, 93(6): 1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang, Y.X., Liu, Y. and Wang, Q., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2010, 116(1): 45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weil, E.D. and Pate, N.G., 1990, U.S. Pat., 4.177.185Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kodolov, V.I., Babushkina, S.N., Shabanova, I.N., Kuznetsov, A.P. and Mikhailov, V.I., Inter. J. Polym. Mat., 2000, 47(1): 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ishikawa, T., Ueno, T., Watanabe, Y., Mizuno, K. and Takeda, K., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2008, 109(2): 910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, G.X., Yang, J.F., He, T.S, Wu, Y.H. and Liang, G.Z., Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(13): 3121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scharte, B. and Hull, T.R., Fire Mater., 2007, 31(5): 327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morice, L., Bourbigot, S. and Leery, J.M., J. Fire Sci., 1997, 15(5): 358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balabanovich, A.I., Levchik, S.V., Levchik, G.F., Schnabel, W. and Wilkie, C.A., Polym. Degrad. Stab., 1999, 64(2): 191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Camino, G., Maffezzoli, A., Braglia, M., Lazzaro, M.D. and Zammarano, M., Polym. Degrad. Stab., 2001, 74(3): 457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Herrera, M.G. and Matuschek, A.K., J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2000, 59(1–2): 385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Do, C.H., Pearce, E.M., Bulkin, B.J. and Reimschuessel, H.K., J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem., 1987, 25(9): 2409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pramoda, K.P., Liu, T.X., Liu, Z.H., He, C.B. and Sue, H.J., Polym. Degrad. Stab., 2003, 81(1): 47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Svoboda, M., Schneider, B. and Stokr, J., Collect Czech. Chem. Commun., 1991, 56(6): 1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wouter, G., Braam, A. and Shahab, J., Polymer, 2003, 44(1): 25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levchik, G.F., Vorobyova, S.A., Gorbarenko, V.V., Levchik, S. and Weil, E.D., J. Fire Sci., 2000, 18(3): 172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thomas, L.C., “Interpretation of the IR spectra of organophosphorus compounds”, Heyden Press, London, 1974, p. 247Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Levchik, S.V., Balabanovich, A.I, Levchik, G.F. and Costa, G., Fire Mater., 1997, 21(2): 75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tacke, P., Neuray, D. and Michael, D., 1981, U.S. Pat., 4.177.185Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Chemical Society, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Degradation and Flame-Retardant Polymeric Materials, College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory of Eco-Friendly Polymeric Materials (Sichuan)Sichuan UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations