Knowledge and Information Systems

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

On big wisdom

  • Minghui Wu
  • Xindong WuEmail author
Regular Paper


This paper defines big wisdom with a HAO/BIBLE framework, which integrates human intelligence (HI), artificial intelligence (AI), and organizational/business intelligence (O/BL) with Bigdata analytics in Large Environments, for industrial intelligence in organizational activities. Big wisdom starts with Bigdata, discovers big knowledge, and facilitates human and machine synergism for complex problem solving. When the HAO/BIBLE framework is applied to a regular (non-Bigdata) environment, it becomes the well-known PEAS agent structure, and when the knowledge graph in HAO/BIBLE relies on domain expertise (rather than big knowledge), HAO/BIBLE serves as an expert system. This paper compares and contrasts Bigdata, big knowledge, and big wisdom and instantiates HAO/BIBLE with a case study for intelligent catering services to illustrate synergized HAO intelligence (HI + AI + OI) for big wisdom.


Human intelligence AI Organizational intelligence Business intelligence Bigdata Big knowledge Big wisdom 



This research is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2016YFB1000900, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 91746209, and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (PCSIRT) of the Ministry of Education, China, under Grant IRT17R32.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mininglamp Software SystemsBeijingChina
  2. 2.Research Institute of Big KnowledgeHefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina

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