Knowledge and Information Systems

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 345–374 | Cite as

Recommending packages with validity constraints to groups of users

  • Shuyao Qi
  • Nikos MamoulisEmail author
  • Evaggelia Pitoura
  • Panayiotis Tsaparas
Regular Paper


The success of recommender systems has made them the focus of a massive research effort in both industry and academia. Recent work has generalized recommendations to suggest packages of items to single users, or single items to groups of users. However, to the best of our knowledge, the interesting problem of recommending a package to a group of users (P2G) has not been studied to date. This is a problem with several practical applications, such as recommending vacation packages to tourist groups, entertainment packages to groups of friends or sets of courses to groups of students. In this paper, we formulate the P2G problem, and we propose probabilistic models that capture the preference of a group toward a package, incorporating factors such as user impact and package viability. We also investigate the issue of recommendation fairness. This is a novel consideration that arises in our setting, where we require that no user is consistently slighted by the item selection in the package. In addition, we study a special case of the P2G problem, where the recommended items are places and the recommendation should consider the current locations of the users in the group. We present aggregation algorithms for finding the best packages and compare our suggested models with baseline approaches stemming from previous work. The results show that our models find packages of high quality which consider all special requirements of P2G recommendation.


Package to group recommendation Recommender systems Probabilistic models Recommendation fairness 



This work was supported by Grant 17205015 from Hong Kong RGC, by European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement No. 657347, and by Marie Curie Reintegration Grant project titled JMUGCS which has received research funding from the European Union.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Hong KongPokfulamChina
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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