Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Extreme heat and drought in 1473 and their impacts in Europe in the context of the early 1470s

  • 59 Accesses


Droughts and heatwaves are both dangerous natural hazards with a potential significant impact on human societies. In order to understand these hazards, it is important to examine such extreme events in the past. During the years 1471 to 1474, warm and dry weather conditions are described in most parts of Europe. Until now, these extraordinary years have not been examined in depth. Moreover, in spring 1473, a great drought and heat occurred in Europe. This heatwave facilitated a fast phenological development. During the summer and the autumn, temperatures were unusually high, and extremely dry weather conditions continued. In many places, the harvest began remarkably early, and there was abundant wine of a good quality. Fruit trees even bloomed for the second time in autumn. The heat and drought had a considerable impact on the environment and also caused damage to agriculture and society, including water shortages, harvest failures and rising food prices. The weather conditions of the years from 1471 to 1474 were outstanding during the fifteenth century and the heatwave and drought, as well as impacts on environment, economy, and society in the year 1473, were comparable to—if not more severe—than those in the year 1540. Learning from past climate anomalies like the 1473 drought in Europe is important for evaluating more recent and future climate extremes under increasing anthropogenic pressure.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Aston M (1994) On death. Perceptions of society in late medieval England. In: Horrox R (ed) Fifteenth-century attitudes. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, pp 202–225

  2. Bazkowski C, Kowalczyk M, Ożóg C, Prożyńska C, Turkowska D, Wyrozumski G (eds) (2005) Joannis Dlugossii Annales seu Cronicae incliti regni Poloniae. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Cracow

  3. Behringer W (2010) A cultural history of climate. Polity Press, Cambridge

  4. Beniston M (2004) The 2003 heat wave in Europe: a shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophys Res Lett 31/2:L02202. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018857

  5. Bernoulli A (ed) (1895) Die Anonyme Chronik der Burgunderkriege 1473–1479. In: Bernoulli A (ed) Basler Chroniken, vol. 5. S. Hirzel, Leipzig, pp. 499–527

  6. Bonora A (ed) (1862) Chronica Civitatis Placentiae Johanni Agazzari et Antonii Francisci Villa. Pietro Fiaccadori, Parma

  7. Borghi C (ed) (1861) Cronaca Modenese di Jacopino de’ Bianchi detto de’ Lancellotti. Pietro Fiaccadori, Parma

  8. Borisenkov YP, Pasetskiy VM (1988) A thousand-year history of unusual natural events (in Russian). Mysl, Moskva

  9. Borman C (1902) Chronique d’Adrien d’Oudenbosch. Cormaux, Liège

  10. Brázdil R, Kotyza O (1995) History of weather and climate in the Czech Lands, vol. 1, Period 1000-1500. Geographisches Institut ETH Zürich, Zürich

  11. Brázdil R, Pfister C, Wanner H, von Storch H, Luterbacher J (2005) Historical climatology in Europe—the state of the art. Clim Chang 70:363–430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-5924-1

  12. Brázdil R, Dobrovolný P, Luterbacher J, Moberg A, Pfister C, Wheeler D, Zorita E (2010) European climate of the past 500 years. New challenges for historical climatology. Clim Chang 101:7–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9783-z

  13. Brázdil R, Dobrovolný P, Trnka M, Kotyza O, Řezníčková L, Valášek H, Zahradníček P, Štěpánek P (2013) Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD. Clim Past 9:1985–2002. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-9-1985-2013

  14. Brázdil R, Řezníčková L, Valášek H, Kiss A, Kotyza O (2014) Past locust outbreaks in the Czech Lands: do they indicate particular climatic patterns? Theor Appl Climatol 116(1–2):343–357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0950-9

  15. Brázdil R, Dobrovolný P, Trnka M, Büntgen U, Řezníčková L, Kotyza O, Valášek H, Štěpánek P (2016) Documentary and instrumental-based drought indices for the Czech Lands back to AD 1501. Clim Res 70:103–117. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01380

  16. Brázdil R, Kiss A, Řezníčková L, Barriendos M (2019) Droughts in historical times in Europe, as derived from documentary evidence. In: Herget J, Fontana A (eds) Palaeohydrology. Traces, tracks and trails of extreme events. Springer, Cham, pp 65–96

  17. Bruneau C (1932) La chronique de Philippe de Vigneulles, vol. 3, De l’an 1473 à l’an 1499. Société d’histoire et d’archéologie de la Lorraine, Metz

  18. Buisman J (1996) Duizend jaar weer, wind, en water in de Lage Landen, vol 3. Van Wijnen, Franeker, pp 1450–1525

  19. Camenisch C (2015a) Endlose Kälte. Witterungsverlauf und Getreidepreise in den Burgundischen Niederlanden im 15. Jahrhundert. Schwabe, Basel

  20. Camenisch C (2015b) Endless cold. A seasonal reconstruction of temperature and precipitation in the Burgundian Low Countries during the 15th century based on documentary evidence. Clim Past 11:1049–1066. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-11-1049-2015

  21. Camenisch C (2018) Two decades of crisis: famine and dearth during the 1480s and 1490s in Western and Central Europe. In: Collet D, Schuh M (eds) Famines during the ʻLittle Ice Ageʼ (1300–1800): socionatural entanglements in premodern societies. Springer, Cham, pp 69–90

  22. Camenisch C, Keller KM, Salvisberg M, Amann B, Bauch M, Blumer S, Brázdil R, Brönnimann S, Büntgen U, Campbell BMS, Fernández-Donado L, Fleitmann D, Glaser R, González-Rouco F, Grosjean M, Hoffmann RC, Huhtamaa H, Joos F, Kiss A, Kotyza O, Lehner F, Luterbacher J, Maughan N, Neukom R, Novy T, Pribyl K, Raible CC, Riemann D, Schuh M, Slavin P, Werner JP, Wetter O (2016) The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer minimum with social and economic impacts in North-western and Central Europe. Clim Past 12:2107–2126. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-2107-2016

  23. Campbell BMS (2016) The great transition: climate, disease and society in the late medieval world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  24. Camuffo D, Enzi S (1991) Locust invasions and climatic factors from the Middle Ages to 1800. Theor Appl Climatol 43:43–73

  25. Cook ER, Seager R, Kushnir Y, Briffa KR, Büntgen U, Frank D, Krusic PJ, Tegel W, van der Schrier GJ, Andreu-Hayles L, Baillie M, Baittinger C, Bleicher N, Bonde N, Brown DM, Carrer M, Cooper RJ, Čufar K, Dittmar C, Esper J, Griggs CB, Gunnarson B, Günther B, Gutiérrez E, Haneca K, Helama S, Herzig F, Heussner KU, Hofmann J, Janda P, Kontic R, Köse N, Kyncl T, Levanič T, Linderholm HW, Manning SW, Melvin TM, Miles D, Neuwirth B, Nicolussi K, Nola P, Panayotov M, Popa I, Rothe A, Seftigen K, Seim A, Svarva H, Svoboda M, Thun T, Timonen M, Touchan R, Trotsiuk V, Trouet V, Walder F, Ważny T, Wilson RJS, Zang C (2015) Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the common era. Sci Adv 1/10:e1500561. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500561 http://drought.memphis.edu

  26. Curtis D, Roosen J (2018) Dangers of noncritical use of historical plague data. Emerg Infect Dis 24(1):103–110

  27. Dierauer J (1900) Zürcher und Glarner Fortsetzung 1425-1433. 1460-1478. In: Dierauer J (ed) Chronik der Stadt Zürich. Mit Fortsetzungen. Adolf Geering, Basel, pp 226–271

  28. Dobrovolný P, Moberg A, Brázdil R, Pfister C, Glaser R, Wilson R, van Engelen A, Limanówka D, Kiss A, Halíčková M, Macková J, Riemann D, Luterbacher J, Böhm R (2010) Monthly, seasonal and annual temperature reconstructions for Central Europe derived from documentary evidence and instrumental records since AD 1500. Clim Chang 101(1–2):69–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9724-x

  29. Florianus M (1884) Chronica Dubniciense cum codicibus Sambuci Acephalo et Vaticano, cronicisque Vindobonensi picto et Budensi accurate collatum. M. Taizs, Leipzig

  30. Franzén B, Söderberg J (2006) Svenska spannmålspriser under medeltiden i ett europeiskt perspektiv. Historisk tidskrift 126(2):189–214

  31. Frensdorff F, Lexer M, Roth F (eds) (1892) Anonyme Chronik von 991–1483. In: Die Chroniken der schwäbischen Städte, vol. 3. S. Hirzel, Leipzig, pp 445–530

  32. Garnier E (2019) Historic drought from archives: beyond the instrumental record. In: Iglesias A, Assimacopoulos D, Van Lanen HAJ (eds) Drought. Science and Policy. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 45–67

  33. Glaser R (2013) Klimageschichte Mitteleuropas. 1200 Jahre Wetter, Klima, Katastrophen, 3rd edn. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt

  34. Glaser R, Riemann D (2009) A thousand-year record of temperature variations for Germany and Central Europe based on documentary data. J Quat Sci 24/5:437–449

  35. Grove JM (1988) The Little Ice Age. Routledge, London and New York

  36. Hadorph J (1676) Dahle laghen, then i forna tijder hafwer brukat warit öfwer alla Dalarna och them som in om Dala råmärken bodde, Stockholm

  37. Hansen J (1887) Chronik des Dietrich Westhoff von 750–1550. In: Die Chroniken der westfälischen und niederrheinischen Städte. S. Hirzel, Leipzig, pp 147–478

  38. Hausen R (ed) (1890) Registrum ecclesiæ Aboensis eller Åbo domkyrkas svartbok, med tillägg ur Skoklosters codex Aboensis. Finlands statsarkiv, Helsingfors

  39. Házi J, Németh J (eds) (2005) Gerichtsbuch/Bírósági könyv 1423–1531. Győr-Moson-Sopron Megye Soproni Levéltára, Sopron

  40. HNA DL: Hungarian National Archives (HNA), Collection of medieval documents (DL), cat, no. 17427 and no. 45521, Official letters of the palatine Mihály Guti Ország to the vice-count and county judges of Hont County, 13 February and 28 March 1473

  41. Hoy A, Hänsel S, Skalák P, Ustrnul Z, Bochníček O (2017) The extreme European summer of 2015 in a long-term perspective. Int J Climatol 37:943–962. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4751

  42. Ilgen T (ed) (1895) Auszüge aus den Soester Stadtbüchern. In: Die Chroniken der westfälischen und niederrheinischen Städte, vol. 3, S. Hirzel, Leipzig, pp 1–176

  43. Jacobs S, Calvin D (2001) Weevils on stored grains. Entomological notes. The Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Sciences. Cooperative extension, University Park, PA

  44. Keller M (2016) The science of grapevines, anatomy and physiology, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Amsterdam

  45. Kervyn de Lettenhove JM (ed) (1876) E scriptis Petri monachi Bethleemitici chronica excerpta. In: Chroniques relatives à l’histoire de la Belgique sous la domination des Ducs de Bourgogne, vol. 3. F. Hayez, Brussels, pp 339–468

  46. Kervyn van Lettenhove JM (ed) (1870) Chronique d’Adrien de But complétée par les additions du même auteur. In: Chroniques des religieux des Dunes, Jean Brandon – Gilles de Roye – Adrien de Brut. F. Hayez, Brussels, pp 211–710

  47. Keussen H (1869) Chronicon monasterii Campensis ordin. Cisterciensis. Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein 20:261–360

  48. Kington JA (2010) Climate and weather. Collins, London

  49. Kiss A (2017) Droughts and low water levels in late medieval Hungary II: 1361, 1439, 1443–4, 1455, 1473, 1480, 1482(?), 1502–3, 1506: documentary versus tree-ring (OWDA) evidence. J Environ Geogr 10:43–56. https://doi.org/10.1515/jengeo-2017-0012

  50. Kiss A (2020) A dynamic interplay of weather, biological factors and socio-economic interactions: late 15th-century-early 16th-century crises in Hungary. In: Kiss A, Pribyl K (eds) the dance of death in late medieval and renaissance Europe: environmental stress, mortality and social response. Routledge, Abingdon, pp 125-145.

  51. Kiss A, Nikolić Z (2015) Droughts, dry spells and low water levels in medieval Hungary (and Croatia) I: the great droughts of 1362, 1474, 1479, 1494 and 1507. J Environ Geogr 8(1–2):11–22. https://doi.org/10.1515/jengeo-2015-0002

  52. Krämer D (2015) “Menschen grasten nun mit dem Vieh”. Die letzte grosse Hungerkrise der Schweiz 1816/17. Schwabe, Basel

  53. Kulcsár M, Kulcsár P (eds) (1976) Antonius de Bonfinis. Rerum Ungaricarum decades. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

  54. Laaha G, Gauster T, Tallaksen LM, Vidal J-P, Stahl K, Prudhomme C, Heudorfer B, Vlnas R, Ionita M, Van Lanen HAJ, Adler M-J, Caillouet L, Delus C, Fendekova M, Gailliez S, Hannaford J, Kingston D, Van Loon AF, Mediero L, Osuch M, Romanowicz R, Sauquet E, Stagge JH, Wong WK (2017) The European 2015 drought from a hydrological perspective. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 21:3001–3024. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-3001-2017

  55. Labbé T, Pfister C, Brönnimann S, Rousseau D, Franke J, Bois B (2019) The longest homogeneous series of grape harvest dates, Beaune 1354–2018, and its significance for the understanding of past and present climate. Clim Past 15:1485–1501. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-1485-2019

  56. Larchey L (ed) (1857) Journal de Jehan Aubrion, bourgeois de Metz, avec sa continuation par Pierre Aubrion. F. Blanc, Metz, pp 1465–1512

  57. Le Roy Ladurie E (2004) Histoire humaine et comparée du climat. Canicules et glaciers XIIIe-XVIIIe siècles. Fayard, Paris

  58. Litzenburger L (2015) Une ville face au climat. Metz à la fin du Moyen Âge (1400–1530). Presses Universitaires de Nancy, Nancy

  59. Luterbacher J, Pfister C (2015) The year without a summer. Nat Geosci 8:246–248. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2404

  60. Luterbacher J, Rickli R, Xoplaki E, Tinguely C, Beck C, Pfister C, Wanner H (2001) The Late Maunder Minimum (1675–1715) – a key period for studying decadal scale climatic change in Europe. Clim Chang 49(4):441–462. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010667524422

  61. Lycosthenes C (1557) Prodigiorum ac ostentorum chronicon. Henricus Petri, Basileae

  62. Mackay A (1981) Climate and popular unrest in late medieval Castile. In: Wigley TML, Ingram MJ, Farmer G (eds) Climate and history. Studies in past climates and their impact on man. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 356–376

  63. Mafrici MV (1994) Calabria Ulteriore (1266–1860). In: Galasso G, Romeo R (eds) Storia del Mezzogiorno. Le Province VII. Edizioni del Sole, Rome, pp 95–237

  64. Matthews JA, Briffa KR (2005) The ‘Little Ice Age’: re-evaluation of an evolving concept. Geogr Ann 87:17–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0435-3676.2005.00242.x

  65. Montes Romero-Camacho I (1995) Política y Economía en la Campiña Sevillana: la Producción Agraria en la Comarca de Osuna. Aproximación a su Estudio a Través de las Rentas Decimales. In: Iglesias Rodríguez JJ, García Fernández M (eds) Osuna Entre los Tiempos Medievales y Modernos. Siglos XII–XVIII. Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, pp 135–181

  66. Munzar J (2004) Extreme droughts in Central Europe in the pre-instrumental period. Morav Geogr Rep 12:13–23

  67. Oliva M, Ruiz-Fernández J, Barriendos M, Benito G, Cuadrat JM, Domínguez-Castro F, García-Ruiz JM, Giralt S, Gómez-Ortiz A, Hernández A, López-Costas O, López-Moreno JI, López-Sáez JA, Martínez-Cortizas A, Moreno A, Prohom M, Saz MA, Serrano E, Tejedor E, Trigo R, Valero-Garcés B, Vicente-Serrano SM (2018) The Little Ice Age in Iberian mountains. Earth-Sci Rev 177:175–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.11.010

  68. Orth R, Vogel MM, Luterbacher J, Pfister C, Seneviratne SI (2016) Did European temperatures in 1540 exceed present-day records? Environ Res Lett 11:114021

  69. PAGES Hydro2k Consortium (2017) Comparing proxy and model estimates of hydroclimate variability and change over the common era. Clim Past 13:1851–1900. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-13-1851-2017

  70. Pertz GH (1851) Continuatio Mellicensis. In: Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores, vol 9. Hahn, Hannover, pp 501–535

  71. Pfister C (2007) Bevölkerungsgeschichte und historische Demographie 1500–1800, 2nd edn. Oldenbourg, München

  72. Pfister C (2018) The “Black Swan” of 1540. Aspects of a European megadrought. In: Leggewie K, Mauelshagen F (eds) Climatic change and cultural transition in Europe. Brill, Leiden, pp 156–196

  73. Pfister C, Rohr C (eds) Euro-Climhist. Information system on the history of weather and climate, http://www.euroclimhist.unibe.ch. doi: https://doi.org/10.7892/boris.73059. Accessed 30 January 2020

  74. Pfister C, Brázdil R, Luterbacher J, Ogilvie AEJ, White S (2018) Early modern Europe. In: White S, Pfister C, Mauelshagen F (eds) The Palgrave handbook of climate history. Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 265–295

  75. Plarre R (2010) An attempt to reconstruct the natural and cultural history of the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Eur J Entomol 107/1:1–11. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2010.001

  76. Radkau J (2007) Holz – wie ein Naturstoff Geschichte schreibt. Oekom Verlag, München

  77. Rohr C (2009) “Sie seind krochen wie ain kriegsordnung”. Heuschreckenplagen im Land Tirol im Spätmittelalter und in der Frühen Neuzeit. Tiroler Heimatblätter 84(1):20–25

  78. Rohr C (2010) Zur Wahrnehmung, Deutung und Bewältigung von Heuschreckenplagen in Mitteleuropa im Spätmittelalter und in der Frühen Neuzeit. In: Klein T, Prass R, Rau S, Schladitz L (eds) Umweltgeschichte in globaler Perspektive. Vortragsreihe des Historischen Seminars der Universität Erfurt im Sommersemester 2010, http://www.db-thueringen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-23892/Rohr_Heuschreckenplagen.pdf

  79. Rohr C, Camenisch C, Pribyl K (2018) European middle ages. In: White S, Pfister C, Mauelshagen F (eds) The Palgrave handbook of climate history. Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 247–263

  80. Rørdam H (ed) (1873) Historiske kildeskrifter og bearbejdelser af dansk historie især fra det 16. aarhundrede, R 1, vol. 1. Gad, Kjøbenhavn

  81. Rossiaud J (1994) Réalités et imaginaire d'un fleuve: recherches sur le Rhône medieval, PhD thesis, vol. 8, Université Paris I, Paris

  82. Roth G (ed) (2003) Peter Eschenloers Geschichte der Stadt Breslau, vol 2. Waxmann, Münster

  83. Rousseau D (2015) Fluctuations des dates de vendanges bourguignonnes et fluctuations des températures d’avril à septembre de 1378 à 2010. In: Camberlin P, Richard Y (eds) Climat. Système & interactions. XXVIIe Colloque de l’Association Internationale de Climatologie, 2-5 juillet 2014 – Dijon, pp 746–752

  84. Schmauk M (1889) Supplementum analectorum terrae Scepusiensis, Pars II. Typogr. Episcopalis, Szepesváraljae

  85. Schwarz-Zanetti G (1998) Grundzüge der Klima- und Umweltgeschichte des Hoch- und Spätmittelalters in Mitteleuropa. Studentendruckerei, Zürich

  86. Shabalova MV, van Engelen AFV (2003) Evaluation of a reconstruction of winter and summer temperatures in the Low Countries, AD 764–1998. Clim Chang 58(1–2):219–242. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023474032539

  87. Siklósy Z, Demény A, Szenthe I, Leél-Őssy S, Pilet S, Lin Y, Chuan-Chou S (2009) Reconstruction of climate variation for the last millennium in the Bükk Mountains, Northeast Hungary, from a stalagmite record. Időjárás 113(4):245–263

  88. Tatti L (1743) Degli annali sacri della città di Como raccolti, e descritti dal P.[adre] D.[on] Primo Luigi Tatti Ch[ierico] Regolare della Congregazione di Somasca. Decade 1–3, appendice alla terza deca degli annali di Como. Per gli eredi di Nicolò Caprani Stampatori della Città, Como

  89. Templ B, Koch E, Blomgren K, Ungersböck M, Paul A, Scheifinger H, Rutishauser T, Busto M, Chmielewski FM, Hájková L, Hodzić S, Kaspar F, Pietragalla B, Romero-Fresneda R, Tolvanen A, Vučetič V, Zimmermann K, Zust A (2018) Pan European phenological database (PEP725). A single point of access for European data. Int J Biometeorol 62(6):1109–1113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1512-8

  90. UFZ (2018) https://www.ufz.de/index.php?de=44429, last visited 31 January 2020

  91. Van Loon AF, Stahl K, Di Baldassarre J, Clark J, Rangecroft S, Wanders N, Gleeson T, Van Dijk AIJM, Tallaksen LM, Hannaford J, Uijlenhoet R, Teuling AJ, Hannah DM, Sheffield J, Svoboda M, Verberein B, Wagener T, Van Lanen HAJ (2016) Drought in a human-modified world: reframing drought definitions, understanding, and analysis approaches. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 20:3631–3650. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-3631-2016

  92. Wetter O, Pfister C (2013a) An underestimated record breaking event. Why summer 1540 was likely warmer than 2003. Clim Past 9(1):41–56. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-9-41-2013

  93. Wetter O, Pfister C (2013b) Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454-1970. Clim Past 7:1307–1326. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-7-1307-2011

  94. Wetter O, Pfister C, Werner JP, Zorita E, Wagner S, Seneviratne SI, Herget J, Grünewald U, Luterbacher J, Alcoforado MJ, Barriendos M, Bieber U, Brázdil R, Burmeister KH, Camenisch C, Contino A, Dobrovolný P, Glaser R, Himmelsbach I, Kiss A, Kotyza O, Labbé T, Limanówka D, Litzenburger L, Nordli Ø, Pribyl K, Retsö D, Riemann D, Rohr C, Siegfried W, Söderberg J, Spring JL (2014) The year-long unprecedented European heat and drought of 1540 – a worst case. Clim Chang 125:349–363. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1184-2

  95. Wilhite DA, Pulwarty RS (2018) Drought and water crises. Integrating Science, Management, and Policy. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp 3–20

Download references


R. Brázdil acknowledges support by the Czech Science Foundation, project no. 17-10026S. We acknowledge Laurent Litzenburger (Nancy, France) for sharing his Metz data and Astrid E.J. Ogilvie (Boulder, USA) for language editing and proofreading. The paper is a contribution to the PAGES (Past Global Changes) Climate Reconstruction and Impacts from the Archives of Societies (CRIAS) working group.

Author information

Correspondence to Chantal Camenisch.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Societal Impacts of Historical Droughts



Table 3 Analysed primary and secondary sources by regions according to Eurovoc

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Camenisch, C., Brázdil, R., Kiss, A. et al. Extreme heat and drought in 1473 and their impacts in Europe in the context of the early 1470s. Reg Environ Change 20, 19 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-020-01601-0

Download citation


  • Drought
  • Heat
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Human impact
  • Locusts
  • Wildfires