Advertisement

Climate change adaptation planning in practice: insights from the Caribbean

  • Adelle ThomasEmail author
  • Omagano Shooya
  • Martin Rokitzki
  • Maria Bertrand
  • Tabea Lissner
Original Article

Abstract

Climate change adaptation planning has rapidly expanded to assist with reducing vulnerability to current and projected impacts of climate change. In Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS), planned adaptation is viewed as essential to address their high vulnerability to climate change, and planning has begun in earnest across the region. However, there has been limited analysis of adaptation planning documents in the region to assess their quality and content. This study assesses adaptation planning documents from Caribbean SIDS, focusing on inclusion of key stages of adaptation planning that were identified from international and regionally specific adaptation guidance instruments. Eighty-nine Caribbean adaptation planning documents—including policies, strategies, programs, and projects—were assessed, revealing that they differ considerably from guidance instruments. Key areas for improvement include the need for (i) more direct linkages between identification of adaptation options and assessments of climate hazards, impacts, vulnerability, and risk; (ii) identification and appraisal of a range of adaptation options; and (iii) increased inclusion and usage of quantitative information about hazards and impacts. Addressing these deficiencies may help to improve the status of adaptation planning in the region and ultimately aid in reducing the high vulnerability of these island nations to the impacts of climate change.

Keywords

Adaptation planning Adaptation appraisal Small island developing states Caribbean 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the support of the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre in facilitating identification of adaptation planning documents in the region. Kind thanks are due to Carl-Friedrich Schleussner and Sharon Lindo for providing comments to improve the paper and to Emily Theokritoff for the assistance in revisions. We also thank the reviewers of the paper for their comments in contributing to an improved paper.

Funding information

We thank the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) for the funding that supported the research for this study.

Supplementary material

10113_2019_1540_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 20 kb)

References

  1. Amerasinghe N, Thwaites J, Larsen G, Ballesteros A (2017) The future of the funds: exploring the architecture of multilateral climate finance. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson-Sköld Y, Thorsson S, Rayner D, Lindberg F, Janhäll S, Jonsson A, Moback U, Bergman R, Granberg M (2015) An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas. Clim Risk Manag 7:31–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CRM.2015.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anguelovski I, Chu E, Carmin JA (2014) Variations in approaches to urban climate adaptation: experiences and experimentation from the global south. Glob Environ Chang 27:156–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.05.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anguelovski I, Shi L, Chu E, Gallagher D, Goh K, Lamb Z, Reeve K, Teicher H (2016) Equity impacts of urban land use planning for climate adaptation: critical perspectives from the global north and south. J Plan Educ Res 36:333–348.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X16645166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Araos M, Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Austin SE, Biesbroek R, Lesnikowski A (2016) Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: a systematic global assessment. Environ Sci Pol 66:375–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atteridge A, Canales N, Savvidou G (2017) Climate finance in the Caribbean region’s small island developing states. 92.  https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.14777.88167
  7. Baker I, Peterson A, Brown G, Mcalpine C (2012) Local government response to the impacts of climate change: an evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. Landsc Urban Plan 107:127–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bassett E, Shandas V (2010) Innovation and climate action planning: perspectives from municipal plans. J Am Plan Assoc 76:435–450.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2010.509703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caribbean Development Bank (2011) Natural Disaster Management-Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (Extreme Rainfall Event)-Grenada. St. Michael, BarbadosGoogle Scholar
  10. CCCCC (2013) Caribbean Climate Online Risk and Adaptation tooL. http://ccoral.caribbeanclimate.bz/. Accessed 4 Sep 2018
  11. CEDRIG Climate, Environment And Disaster Risk Reduction Integration Guidance (CEDRIG) operational: detailed assessment and integration. SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  12. Dittrich R, Wreford A, Moran D (2016) A survey of decision-making approaches for climate change adaptation: are robust methods the way forward? Ecol Econ 122:79–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Füssel HM (2007) Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons. Sustain Sci 2:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geneletti D, Zardo L (2016) Ecosystem-based adaptation in cities: an analysis of European urban climate adaptation plans. Land Use Policy 50:38–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.LANDUSEPOL.2015.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Global Water Partnership Caribbean, (2014) Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre Achieving development resilient to climate change: a sourcebook for the Caribbean water sector. St Clair, Trinidad & TobagoGoogle Scholar
  16. Government of Jamaica (2011) The Second National Communication of Jamaica to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Kingston, JamaicaGoogle Scholar
  17. Government of Trinidad and Tobago (2011) National Climate Change Policy. Trinidad and Tobago, Port of SpainGoogle Scholar
  18. Green Climate Fund (2018) Water sector resilience nexus for sustainability in Barbados (WSRN S-Barbados). Barbados, BridgetownGoogle Scholar
  19. Hahn M, Fröde A (2011) Climate proofing for development: adapting to climate change, reducing risk. EschbornGoogle Scholar
  20. Harrison PA, Holman IP, Berry PM (2015) Assessing cross-sectoral climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation: an introduction to the CLIMSAVE project. Clim Chang 128:153–167.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1324-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE (2005) Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res 15:1277–1288.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeuken A, Haasnoot M, Reeder T, Ward PJ (2014) Lessons learnt from adaptation planning in four deltas and coastal cities. Artic J Water Clim Chang 6:711–728.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2014.141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kettle N, Dow K (2014) The role of perceived risk, uncertainty, and trust on coastal climate change adaptation planning Climate change adaptation as governmentality: the case of sea defense systems in the Volta River Delta of Ghana View project Climate in Context: Science and Society Partnering for Adaptation View project. Environ Behav 48:579–606.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916514551049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kirshen P, Merrill S, Slovinsky P, Richardson N (2012) Simplified method for scenario-based risk assessment adaptation planning in the coastal zone. Clim Chang 113:919–931.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0379-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lamari M, Bouchard J, Jacob J, Poulin-Larivière L (2016) Monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation in coastal zones: overview of the indicators in use. Clim Chang Adapt Resil Hazards.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39880-8_1
  26. Lehmann P, Brenck M, Gebhardt O, Schaller S, Süßbauer E (2015) Barriers and opportunities for urban adaptation planning: analytical framework and evidence from cities in Latin America and Germany. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 20:75–97.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9480-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lindner M, Fitzgerald JB, Zimmermann NE, Reyer C, Delzon S, van der Maaten E, Schelhaas MJ, Lasch P, Eggers J, van der Maaten-Theunissen M, Suckow F, Psomas A, Poulter B, Hanewinkel M (2014) Climate change and European forests: what do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management? J Environ Manag 146:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorenz S, Dessai S, Forster PM, Paavola J (2017) Adaptation planning and the use of climate change projections in local government in England and Germany. Reg Environ Chang 17:425–435.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-1030-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lyles W, Stevens M (2014) Plan quality evaluation 1994–2012: growth and contributions, limitations, and new directions. J Plan Educ Res 34:433–450.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X14549752 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Measham TG, Preston BL, Smith TF, Brooke C, Gorddard R, Withycombe G, Morrison C (2011) Adapting to climate change through local municipal planning: barriers and challenges. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16:889–909.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9301-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Medeiros D, Hove H, Keller M, Echeverria D, Parry J (2011) Review of current and planned adaptation action: the CaribbeanGoogle Scholar
  32. Mimura N, Pulwarty RS, Duc DM, Elshinnawy I, Redsteer MH, Huang H-Q, Nkem JN, Rodriguez RAS, Press CU (2014) Adaptation planning and implementation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Mullan M, Kingsmill N, Kramer AM, Agrawala S (2013) National adaptation planning: lessons from OECD countries OECD Environment Working Papers No 54Google Scholar
  34. Mycoo MA (2017) Beyond 1.5 °C: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies for Caribbean small island developing states. Reg Environ Chang 18:2341–2353 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. New M, Hulme M (2000) Representing uncertainty in climate change scenarios: a Monte-Carlo approach. Integr Assess 1:203–213.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019144202120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Noble I, Huq S, Anokhin Y, Carmin J, Goudou D, Lansigan F, Osman-Elasha B, Villamiza A, Ayers J, Berkhout F, Dow K, Hans-Martin F, Smith J, TTierney K, Wright H, Patt A, Takeuchi K, Chu E (2014) Adaptation needs and options. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ et al (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 833–868Google Scholar
  37. OECD (2011) Handbook on the OECD-DAC climate markers. ParisGoogle Scholar
  38. Preston BL, Westaway RM, Yuen EJ, Preston BL, Westaway RM, Yuen EJ (2011) Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16:407–438.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9270-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Robinson S-A (2018) Adapting to climate change at the national level in Caribbean small island developing states. Isl Stud J 13:79–100.  https://doi.org/10.24043/isj.59 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Robinson S-A, Dornan M (2017) International financing for climate change adaptation in small island developing states. Reg Environ Chang 17:1103–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robinson S (2017) Climate change adaptation trends in small island developing states. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 22:669–691.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-015-9693-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Secretariat C (2003) Caribbean risk management guidelines for climate change adaptation decision making. Georgetown, GuyanaGoogle Scholar
  43. Shi L, Chu E, Debats J (2015) Explaining progress in climate adaptation planning across 156 U.S. municipalities. J Am Plan Assoc 81:191–202.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2015.1074526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simões E, de Sousa Junior WC, de Freitas DM, Mills M, Iwama AY, Gonçalves I, Olivato D, Fidelman P (2017) Barriers and opportunities for adapting to climate change on the North Coast of São Paulo, Brazil. Reg Environ Chang 17:1739–1750.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1133-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stone B, Vargo J, Habeeb D (2012) Managing climate change in cities: will climate action plans work? Landsc Urban Plan 107:263–271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. The CARIBSAVE Partnership (2012) CARIBSAVE Climate change risk profile for The Bahamas summary document. Christ Church, BarbadosGoogle Scholar
  47. Thomas A, Benjamin L (2017) Management of loss and damage in small island developing states: implications for a 1.5 °C or warmer world. Reg Environ Chang 18:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1184-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas A, Lindo S (forthcoming) Disappearing islands: small island developing states and climate change. In: Svyatets E, Chatterjee M (eds) Environment issues: science, policy, and diplomacy. Cognella, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  49. UNFCCC (2011) The Cancun Adaptation Framework Pre-event on early warning Third Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction International Conference Centre GenevaGoogle Scholar
  50. Wamsler C, Luederitz C, Brink E (2014) Local levers for change: mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation into municipal planning to foster sustainability transitions. Glob Environ Chang 29:189–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wheeler S (2008) State and municipal climate change plans: the first generation. J Am Plan Assoc 74:481–496.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360802377973 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wise RM, Fazey I, Stafford Smith M, Park SE, Eakin HC, Archer Van Garderen ERM, Campbell B (2014) Reconceptualising adaptation to climate change as part of pathways of change and response. Glob Environ Chang 28:325–336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.GLOENVCHA.2013.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Woodruff SC, Stults M (2016) Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans. Nat Clim Chang 6:796–802.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Bank (2015) Improving climate data and information management project P129633. Washington D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Climate AnalyticsBerlinGermany
  2. 2.University of the BahamasNassauBahamas

Personalised recommendations