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Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide variability at Aigüestortes, Central Pyrenees, Spain

  • Roger CurcollEmail author
  • Lluís Camarero
  • Montse Bacardit
  • Alba Àgueda
  • Claudia Grossi
  • Esperança Gacia
  • Anna Font
  • Josep-Anton Morguí
Original Article

Abstract

In order to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle in the Pyrenean region, two atmospheric monitoring mountain stations were set up within the Long-Term Ecological Research node of Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici at Central Pyrenees, Spain. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured over 2008–2014 and 2010–2014 at Estany Llong (ELL) site and Centre de Recerca d’Alta Muntanya (CRAM), respectively. Measurements were carried out fortnightly off-line with high precision instrumentation at ELL and every minute online with a lower precision sensor at CRAM in conjunction with meteorological variables. The two datasets were analyzed in this study, quantifying whenever possible annual growth rates (AGR), seasonal variability, and diurnal amplitudes. Results were also compared with the NOAA Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) reference product and CO2 data from other background monitoring stations. Four-harmonics adjusted CO2 data from ELL showed a high correlation with the NOAA MBL reference product for the same latitude (Spearman’s rho ρ = 0.96). In addition, AGRs of CO2 at ELL correlated well with those observed at Mace Head (MHD) station (ρ = 0.94), suggesting that ELL can be considered a background station. Winter CRAM CO2 data was not statistically different from ELL data, while in summer, it was 5.5 ppm lower on average, suggesting a higher photosynthesis uptake. The amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle at CRAM was found to be exponentially related to the local mean daily temperature and dependent on forthcoming wind sector (N-NW or E-SE-S-SW). An increase in CRAM CO2 concentrations was observed under N-NW winds during daytime, which could be related to traffic emissions. This study demonstrates that the use of CO2 sensors with low precision but continuously corrected and periodically calibrated can be used for the study of local and regional CO2 sources and sinks.

Keywords

CO2 Mountain site LTER Long-Term Ecological Research Atmospheric measurements Pyrenees 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the people from the Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park, especially Mercè Aniz, for their support on this research. We would also like to thank the University of Barcelona (UB) for their actions and help in installing a continuous measurement station at the Centre de Recerca d’Alta Muntanya (CRAM). We finally thank all the people who participated in the samplings, particularly Helena Parga, Laura Agraz, Rober Sanchez, Cristina Cereza, Montserrat Recolons, Manel Nofuentes, Silvia Borras, Lidia Cañas, Eusebi Vazquez, and Paola Occhipinti. We used the Marine Boundary Layer reference product kindly provided by E. Dlugokencky, K. Masarie, P. Lang, and P. Tans from NOAA. We used the ObsPack CO2 flask data from Mace Head, CIBA, and Monte Cimone stations. We thank all measurement groups for submitting CO2 concentration data to the ObsPack-GLOBALVIEW product.

Funding information

This work has been mainly funded by own resources of the LAO-Climadat Lab at IC3 and by the Fluxpyr project (POCTEFA Program EFA 34/08 - Interreg IV-A). Data is available through virtual access provided and funded in the frame of eLTER H2020 - European Long-Term Ecosystem and Socio-Ecological Research Infrastructure (EC project GA: 654359; INFRAIA; 2015–2019).

Supplementary material

10113_2018_1443_Fig7_ESM.png (14.1 mb)
Figure S1

General location of Aigüestortes Long Term Ecological Research site in the Pyrenees chain (left). Location of Centre de Recerca d’Alta Muntanya (CRAM) and Estany Llong (ELL) stations in the park (top-center). Corine land cover maps from the cartography of habitats in Catalonia (Carreras and Diego 2007) around CRAM (top left) and ELL (bottom left). (PNG 14442 kb)

10113_2018_1443_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (6.6 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 6788 kb)
10113_2018_1443_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (16 kb)
Figure S2 Schematic for the CO2 analysis of flask samples using two Licor7000 analyzers. (PDF 15 kb)
10113_2018_1443_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (14 kb)
Figure S3 Diurnal and annual CO2 variability at Centre de Recerca d’Alta Muntanya (CRAM). Trend level plot for CO2 at CRAM for 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. (PDF 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Curcoll
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author return OK on get
  • Lluís Camarero
    • 3
    • 5
  • Montse Bacardit
    • 6
  • Alba Àgueda
    • 1
    • 4
  • Claudia Grossi
    • 1
    • 7
    • 8
  • Esperança Gacia
    • 3
    • 5
  • Anna Font
    • 9
  • Josep-Anton Morguí
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 10
  1. 1.Institut Català de Ciències del Clima, IC3BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, ICTA-UABBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Associació LTER-AigüestortesBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Departament d’Enginyeria QuímicaUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSICGironaSpain
  6. 6.Centre de Lauegi, Conselh Generau d’AranLleidaSpain
  7. 7.Institut de Tècniques Energètiques (INTE), UPCBarcelonaSpain
  8. 8.Departament de Fisica Nuclear, UPCBarcelonaSpain
  9. 9.Environmental Research Group, MRC PHE Centre for Environment and HealthKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  10. 10.Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals (BEECA) UBBarcelonaSpain

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