Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 819–831 | Cite as

A quantitative assessment of mid-term risks of global change on forests in Western Mediterranean Europe

  • Assu Gil-Tena
  • Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez
  • Lluís Comas
  • Javier Retana
  • Jordi Vayreda
  • Lluís BrotonsEmail author
Original Article


Assessment of potential forests’ threats due to multiple global change components is urgently needed since increasing exposure to them could undermine their future persistence. We aim to assess the risks to the persistence of monospecific forests in Western Mediterranean Europe posed by climate change, fire, and land-use changes (i.e., deforestation) in the short and medium terms (horizon 2040). We specifically evaluate whether the degree of risk related to the likelihood of hazard occurrence varies depending on seral stage, tree species, and climate gradients. We performed the risk assessment on forests of Catalonia (NE Spain) through a combination of correlative and process-based modeling approaches and future global change scenarios. Overall, climate suitability of forests showed a general decrease by 2040, with the exception of xeric Pinus halepensis forests mainly distributed in the driest climate of the study area. Forest stands dominated by low drought-tolerant species were at higher risk of losing climatic suitability than forests dominated by Mediterranean species. The highest fire and deforestation risks were predicted for forest stands in dry climate where human pressures are higher. Nevertheless, high deforestation risk was also attained outside the driest areas. Deforestation risk was lower in old-growth than in younger stands, whereas old-growth forests in the Wet climate or dominated by Pinus sylvestris were projected to be at higher fire risk than younger forests. Our results suggest that conservation actions should target forest stands in dry climate. Moreover, old-growth forest stands should also be prioritized due to their particular sensitivity to disturbances and their high ecological value.


Climate change Deforestation Fires IPCC-SRES climate projections Monospecific forests Old-growth forests 



This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (CGL2014-59742, CGL2017-89999-C2-2-R, being a contribution to the ECOMETAS network (CGL2016-81706-REDT)), the EU’s 7FP projects (ERA-NET FORESTERRA project Informed 29183 and ERANET-SUMFORESTS project FutureBioEcon PCIN-2017-052), and the Generalitat de Catalunya (CERCA Program). M. N. and M. B. (UAB) generate climatic predictions within the MONTES-Consolider project. We thank the Fire Prevention Service (Generalitat de Catalunya) for providing data on fire statistics. Population data was gathered from the Spanish Statistical Office. A. G-T and AMO were supported by the Spanish Government through the “Juan de la Cierva” fellowship program (JCI-2012-12089 and IJCI-2016-30349, respectively).

Supplementary material

10113_2018_1437_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1120 kb)
10113_2018_1437_MOESM2_ESM.docx (994 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 994 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.InForest Joint Research Unit, CTFC-CREAFSolsonaSpain
  2. 2.CREAFCerdanyola del VallésSpain
  3. 3.Univ Autònoma BarcelonaCerdanyola del VallésSpain
  4. 4.CSICCerdanyola del VallésSpain

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