Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 543–557 | Cite as

Characterising rural resilience in Aotearoa-New Zealand: a systematic review

  • Sam SpectorEmail author
  • Nicholas A Cradock-Henry
  • Sarah Beaven
  • Caroline Orchiston
Original Article


The concept of ‘resilience’ has recently gained traction in a range of contexts. Its various interpretations and framings are now used to examine a variety of issues, particularly relating to the human dimensions of global change. This can pose challenges to scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers seeking to develop focused research programmes, design targeted interventions, and communicate across disciplinary boundaries. The concept of resilience is widely used in Aotearoa-New Zealand, where it informs both government policy and research programmes. Resilience is particularly relevant in this small developed nation, which is heavily reliant on primary production in rural areas and affected by a range of geological and climatic hazards. To understand the range and extent of application of resilience in the rural context, we use systematic review methods to identify, characterise, and synthesise this knowledge base. Currently, research applying the concept of resilience in the rural context is limited in areal extent, largely quantitative in nature, and led by a small number of researchers. There is limited evidence of collaboration. Research has focused on a small number of hazards, failing to capture the diversity of risks and hazards in addition to their impacts. The results of our analysis and methodology offer important insights for meta-analyses of risk and hazard scholarship. The findings provide a baseline to track the future progress and effectiveness of resilience interventions and help inform current and future research priorities targeting persistent vulnerabilities in rural New Zealand and elsewhere.


Rural Primary industries Agriculture Tourism Hazards Risks Resilience New Zealand 



This study was supported by the Resilience to Nature’s Challenges National Science Challenge (funded by the NZ Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment) as part of the Rural Co-Creation Laboratory. We would also like to thank Simon Horner from Manaaki Whenua-Landcare Research for his expert job designing the Fig. 6 infographic.

Supplementary material

10113_2018_1418_MOESM1_ESM.docx (38 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 38.1 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Spector
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicholas A Cradock-Henry
    • 2
  • Sarah Beaven
    • 3
  • Caroline Orchiston
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for SustainabilityUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Manaaki Whenua - Landcare ResearchLincolnNew Zealand
  3. 3.University of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

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