Influence of community-based natural resource management strategies in the resilience of social-ecological systems

  • Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano
  • Elisa Oteros-Rozas
  • Isabel Ruiz-Mallén
  • Diana Calvo-Boyero
  • Cesar Enrique Ortiz-Guerrero
  • Roberto Ivan Escalante-Semerena
  • Esteve Corbera
Original Article

Abstract

Different social-ecological systems around the world are managed under community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) strategies. This paper analyses how CBNRM strategies influence the resilience of social-ecological systems to the disturbances they face, drawing upon the experience of three Latin American cases (two in Mexico and one in Colombia). The cases differ in their CBNRM approach and in the time these governance systems have been in place. By using a mixed-method approach, we review the socio-ecological history and describe each CBNRM characteristics. We then assess their resilience to socioeconomic and environmental disturbances through a set of indicators. We found that CBNRM strategies influence positively and negatively resilience and that internal decisions might address important threats. On the positive side, the social-ecological systems with longer tradition of CBNRM and more local buy-in of commonly agreed objectives appear to be more resilient to environmental challenges. But, internal governance factors such as power imbalances, poor income distribution, and gender inequities linked to CBNRM undermine resilience and foster out migration. Finally, communities appear to have limited capacities to cope with external disturbances such as global drivers of change or national policies that negatively affect their social-ecological resilience.

Keywords

Adaptation Environmental challenges Global change Rural communities Social-ecological systems 

Supplementary material

10113_2017_1223_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (180 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 179 kb).
10113_2017_1223_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (175 kb)
ESM 2(PDF 175 kb).
10113_2017_1223_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (102 kb)
ESM 3(PDF 101 kb).

References

  1. Adger WN (2000) Social and ecological resilience: are they related. Prog Hum Geogr 24(3):347–364. https://doi.org/10.1191/030913200701540465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal B (2009) Gender and forest conservation: the impact of women’s participation in community forest governance. Ecol Econ 68(11):2785–2799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.04.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal A, Chatre A (2006) Explaining success on the commons: community forest governance in the Indian Himalaya. World Dev 34(1):149–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida-Leñero L, Revollo-Fernández D, Caro-Borrero A, Ruiz-Mallén I, Corbera E, Mazari-Hiriart M, Figueroa F (2017) Not the same for everyone: community views of Mexico’s payment for environmental services programmes. Environ Conserv:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892916000564
  5. AMDA-CVC (Consejo Comunitario de la Comunidad Negra de la Parte Alta y Media de la Cuenca del Rio Dagua and Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle) (2007) Formulación del Plan de Administración y Manejo de los Recursos Naturales en el territorio colectivo del Consejo Comunitario Mayor de la Cuenca Alta y Media del Río Dagua. Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderies JM, Walker BH, Kinzig AP (2006) Fifteen weddings and a funeral: case studies and resilience-based management. Ecol Soc 11(1):21 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art21/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armitage D (2005) Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management. Environ Manag 35(6):703–715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0076-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baggio JA, Brown K, Hellebrandt D (2016) Boundary object or bridging concept? A citation network analysis of resilience. Ecol Soc 20(2):2 https://doi.org/10.5751/es-07484-200202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Basurto X, Celcich S, Ostrom E (2013) The social–ecological system framework as a knowledge classificatory system for benthic small-scale fisheries. Glob Environ Chang 23:1366–1380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergamini N, Blasiak R, Eyzaguirre P, Ichikawa K, Mijatovic D, Nakao F, Subramanian S (2013) Indicators of resilience in socio-ecological production landscapes (SEPLs). UNU-IAS Policy Report. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkes F (2004) Rethinking community-based conservation. Conserv Biol 18(3):621–630. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00077.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berkes F (2007) Community-based conservation in a globalized world. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(39):15188–15193. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702098104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berkes F (2010) Devolution of environment and resources governance: trends and future. Environ Conserv 37(04):489–500. https://doi.org/10.1017/S037689291000072X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berkes F, Folke C (eds) (2000) Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds) (2003) Navigating social- ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Biggs R, Schlüter M, Schoon ML (eds) (2015) Principles for building resilience: sustaining ecosystem services in socialecological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781316014240 Google Scholar
  17. Blaikie P (2006) Is small really beautiful? Community-based natural resource management in Malawi and Botswana. World Dev 34(11):1942–1957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.11.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broderstad EG, Eythorsson E (2014) Resilient communities ? Collapse and recovery of a social-ecological system in Arctic Norway. Ecol Soc 19(3):1. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06533-190301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brondizio ES, Tourneau FML (2016) Environmental governance for all. Science 352(6291):1272–1273. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell L, Vainio-Mattila A (2003) Participatory development and community-based conservation: opportunities missed for lessons learned? Hum Ecol 31(3):417–437. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025071822388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carpenter SR, Walker BH, Anderies JM, Abel N (2001) From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what? Ecosystems 4:765–781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carpenter SR, Folke C, Scheffer M, Westley F (2009) Resilience: accounting for the noncomputable. Ecol Soc 14(1):13 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art13/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chapela FJ, Lara Y (1993) Impacto de la política forestal sobre el valor de los bosques: El caso de la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, México. Estudios Rurales y Asesoría Campesina-World Wildlife Fund, OaxacaGoogle Scholar
  24. Colding J, Elmqvist T, Olsson P (2003) Living with disturbance: building resilience in social-ecological systems. In: Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 163–186Google Scholar
  25. Corbera E, Brown K, Adger WN (2007) The equity and legitimacy of markets for ecosystem services. Dev Chang 38(4):587–613. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2007.00425.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cosens B, Gunderson L, Allen C, Benson M (2014) Identifying legal, ecological and governance obstacles, and opportunities for adapting to climate change. Sustainability 6(4):2338–2356. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6042338 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cotula L (2012) The international political economy of the global land rush: a critical appraisal of trends, scale, geography and drivers. J Peasant Stud 39(3–4):649–680. https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2012.674940 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cox M, Arnold G, Villamayor-Tomás S (2010) A review of design principles for community-based natural resource. Ecol Soc 15(4):38 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art38/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cudney-Bueno R, Basurto X (2009) Lack of cross-scale linkages reduces robustness of community-based fisheries management. PLoS One 4(7):e6253. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dauvergne P, Neville KJ (2010) Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels. J Peasant Stud 37(4):631–660. https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2010.512451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Delgado-Serrano MM, Escalante R, Basurto S (2015) Is the community-based management of natural resources inherently linked to resilience? An analysis of Santiago Comaltepec community (Mexico). J Depopul Rural Dev Stud 18:91–114. https://doi.org/10.4422/ager.2015.07 Google Scholar
  32. Delgado-Serrano MM, Mistry J, Matzdorf B, Leclerc G (2017) Community-based management of environmental challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean. Ecol Soc 22(1):4. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08924-210449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dietz T, Ostrom E, Stern PC (2003) The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302(5652):1907–1912. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1091015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duit A, Galaz V, Eckerberg K, Ebbesson J (2010) Governance, complexity, and resilience. Glob Environ Chang 20(3):363–368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Escalante R, Cruz A, Basurto S (2015) Community-based sustainable management and governance models in forest systems. [online] URL: http://comet-la.eu/index.php/en/publications.html
  36. Fabricius C (2004) The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management. In: Fabricius C, Koch E (eds) Rights, resources and rural development. Community-based natural resource management in Southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 3–43Google Scholar
  37. Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD (2006) Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and resilience: ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes. Front Ecol 4(2):80–86. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2006)004[0080:BEFART]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleischman FD, Boenning K, Garcia-Lopez GA, Mincey S, Schmitt-Harsh M, Daedlow K, Lopez M, Basurto X, Fischer B, Ostrom E (2010) Disturbance, response, and persistence in self-organized forested communities: analysis of robustness and resilience in five communities in southern Indiana. Ecol Soc 15(4):9 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art9/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):253–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Folke C (2016) Resilience (republished). Ecol Soc 21(4):44. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09088-210444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Folke C, Colding J, Berkes F (2003) Synthesis: building resilience and adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems. In: Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 352–387Google Scholar
  42. Folke C, Hahn T, Olsson P, Norberg J (2005) Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:441–473. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144511 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Garmestani AS, Benson MH (2013) A framework for resilience-based governance of social-ecological. Ecol Soc 18(1):9. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-05180-180109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gomez-Baggethun E, Olsson P, Montes C (2009) Learning with crises: building resilience to secure ecosystem services in Mediterranean resource management systems. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of the European Society for Ecological EconomicsGoogle Scholar
  45. Gómez-Baggethun E, Reyes-García V, Olsson P, Montes C (2012) Traditional ecological knowledge and community resilience to environmental extremes: a case study in Doñana, SW Spain. Glob Environ Chang 22(3):640–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gunderson LH, Holling CS (eds) (2001) Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Haenn N (2006) The changing and enduring ejido: a state and regional examination of Mexico’s land tenure counter-reforms. Land Use Policy 23:136–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2004.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hayes TM (2007) Does tenure matter? A comparative analysis of agricultural expansion in the Mosquitia forest corridor. Hum Ecol 35:733–747. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-007-9117-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Holling C (2003) The back-loop to sustainability. In: Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  50. INE (1999) Programa de Manejo de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Calakmul. Instituto Nacional de Ecología (INE), Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAT), MexicoGoogle Scholar
  51. INEGI (2010) Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, CampecheGoogle Scholar
  52. Josserand HP (2001) Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Africa—a review. ARD-RAISE Consortium, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  53. Kellert SR, Mehta JN, Ebbin SA, Lichtenfield LL (2000) Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric, and reality. Soc Nat Resour 13(8):705–715. https://doi.org/10.1080/089419200750035575 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kinzig AP, Ehrlich PR, Alston LJ, Arrow K, Barrett S, Buchman TG, Daily GC, Levin B, Levin S, Oppenheimer M (2013) Social norms and global environmental challenges: the complex interaction of behaviors, values, and policy. Bioscience 63(3):164–175. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2013.63.3.5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leach M, Mearns R, Scoones I (1999) Environmental entitlements: dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management. World Dev 27(2):225–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00141-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. MacQueen KM, McLellan E, Kay K, Milstein B (1998) Codebook development for team-based qualitative analysis. Field Methods 10(2):31–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X980100020301 Google Scholar
  57. Nellemann C, Verma R, Hislop L (eds) (2011) Women at the frontline of climate change: gender risks and hopes. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, ArendalGoogle Scholar
  58. Nelson DR, Adger WN, Brown K (2007) Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32(1):395. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.32.051807.090348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Olsson P, Folke C, Hahn T (2004) Social-ecological transformation for ecosystem management: the development of adaptive co-management of a wetland landscape in southern Sweden. Ecol Soc 9(4):2. https://doi.org/10.5751/es-00683-090402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Olsson P, Gunderson LH, Carpenter SR, Ryan P, Lebel L, Folke C, Holling CS (2006) Shooting the rapids: navigating transitions to adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 11(1):18. https://doi.org/10.5751/es-01595-110118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ortíz-Guerrero C, Farah MA, Ramos P, Maya D, Ocampo N, Avendaño B, Pinzon L (2015) Community based sustainable management and governance models in water and biodiversity systems. [online] URL: www.comet-la-eu/index.php/en/publications.html
  62. Ostrom (1990) Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ostrom (1999) Self-governance and forest resources. CIFOR Occasional Paper No 20Google Scholar
  64. Porter-Bolland L, Ellis EA, Guariguata MR, Ruiz-Mallén I, Negrete-Yankelevich S, Reyes-García V (2012) Community managed forests and forest protected areas: an assessment of their conservation effectiveness across the tropics. For Ecol Manag 268:6–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.05.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ratajczyk E, Brady U, Baggio JA, Barnett AJ, Perez-Ibarra I, Rollins N, Janssen MA (2016) Challenges and opportunities in coding the commons: problems, procedures, and potential solutions in large-N comparative case studies. Int J Commons 10(2):440. 10.18352/ijc.652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ruiz-Mallén I, Corbera E (2013) Community-based conservation and traditional ecological knowledge : implications for social-ecological resilience. Ecol Soc 18(4):12. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-05867-180412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ruiz-Mallén I, Corbera E, Calvo-Boyero D, Reyes-García V, Brown K (2015a) How do biosphere reserves influence local vulnerability and adaptation? Evidence from Latin America. Glob Environ Chang 33:97–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ruiz-Mallén I, Schunko C, Reyes-Garcia V, Corbera E, Ross M (2015b) Meanings, drivers and motivations for community-based conservation in Latin America. Ecology and Society 20(3):33. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-07733-200333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmook B, van Vliet N, Radel C, de Jesús M-CM, McCandless S (2013) Persistence of swidden cultivation in the face of globalization: a case study from communities in Calakmul, Mexico. Hum Ecol 41(1):93–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-012-9557-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shackleton CM, Willis TJ, Brown K, Polunin NVC (2010) Reflecting on the next generation of models for community-based natural resources management. Environ Conserv 37(01):1–4. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0376892910000366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stoll-Kleemann S, Bender S, Berghöfer A, Bertzky M, Fritz-Vietta N, Schliep R, Thierfelder B (2006) Linking governance and management perspectives with conservation success in protected areas and biosphere reserves. Perspect Biodivers Gov Manag 1:40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1477200004001495 Google Scholar
  72. Voss JP, Bauknecht D (eds) (2006) Reflexive governance for sustainable development. Edward Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  73. Western D, Wright RM (eds) (1994) Natural connections: perspectives in community based conservation. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  74. Zanetell BA, Knuth BA (2004) Participation rhetoric or community- based management reality? Influences on willingness to participate in a Venezuelan freshwater fishery. World Dev 32:793–807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017
corrected publication October/2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano
    • 1
  • Elisa Oteros-Rozas
    • 2
    • 3
  • Isabel Ruiz-Mallén
    • 4
    • 5
  • Diana Calvo-Boyero
    • 5
  • Cesar Enrique Ortiz-Guerrero
    • 6
  • Roberto Ivan Escalante-Semerena
    • 7
  • Esteve Corbera
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural EconomicsUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Social and Participatory Action Research GroupUniversidad Pablo de OlavideSevillaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource ManagementUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3)Universitat Oberta de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Institute of Environmental Science and TechnologyUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Pontificia Universidad JaverianaBogotáColombia
  7. 7.Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MexicoMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations