Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 739–751 | Cite as

Shared environment, diversity of pathways: dynamics of family farming in the Saïs Plain (Morocco)

  • Mariem Baccar
  • Ahmed Bouaziz
  • Patrick Dugué
  • Pierre-Yves Le Gal
Original Article

Abstract

The sustainability of family farming and its capacity to respond to global changes are widely debated. Based on a survey of 40 farms on the Saïs Plain in Morocco, this article shows how family farms which implemented similar rainfed crop–livestock production systems 45 years ago have evolved differently based on farm characteristics and the variety of natural, economic and political changes they have faced over that time. The survey sample was constructed to cover the wide diversity currently found with regard to the structure, production choices and access to resources (water, land, capital) of local family farms. Four initial farm types were identified based on their access to land, which ranged from private property to collective land tenure. These farms may be grouped today into three main types based on their production activities: mixed rainfed crop–livestock farms, diversified farms combining rainfed and irrigated crops (vegetables and fruit orchards), and specialized irrigated farms. Seven types of development pathways leading farms from their initially similar to their currently diverse situations were identified. The critical determinants were whether and how farms were able to access water and capital resources to acquire land and innovate with high-value crops. This study illustrates that most family farms have capacity to evolve in different ways. However, competition over access to resources (ground water, labour, land) and markets, both between family farms and with locally based agribusiness firms, are a source of uncertainty weighing upon the development dynamics and future of family farms.

Keywords

Farm typology Land use Irrigation Diversification Drivers of change 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Great Federative Project FABATROPIMED, financed by Agropolis Fondation under the reference ID 1001-009, the Groundwater ARENA projects (ANR CEP S 11/09) and the Programme Hubert Curien Toubkal for supporting this work. They are also grateful to the family farmers who accepted to be involved in the study as well as the representatives of the Moroccan administration who provided useful insights on the Saïs Plain agriculture. We would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers who provided valuable comments which helped us in improving this paper. We are also grateful to Grace Delobel for her contribution to the English edition.

Supplementary material

10113_2016_1066_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 1127 kb)

References

  1. Adamczewski A, Hertzog T, Jamin JY, Tonneau JP (2015) Competition for irrigated land: inequitable land management in the Office du Niger (Mali). Int J Sustain Dev 18:161–179. doi: 10.1504/IJSD.2015.070237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agence de bassin hydraulique du Sebou (2011) Étude d’actualisation du plan directeur d’aménagement intégré des ressources en eau du bassin hydraulique de Sebou. Agence de bassin hydraulique du Sebou. http://www.abhsebou.ma/images/actualite_event/rapport%20PDAIRE.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2015
  3. Akesbi N (2012) Une nouvelle stratégie pour l’agriculture marocaine: Le Plan Maroc Vert. New Medit 11:12–23Google Scholar
  4. Alston M, Whittenbury K (2011) Climate change and water policy in Australia’s irrigation areas: a lost opportunity for a partnership model of governance. Environ Polit 20:899–917. doi: 10.1080/09644016.2011.617175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ameur F, Quarouch H, Dionnet M, Lejars C, Kuper M (2015) Outiller un débat sur le rôle des jeunes agriculteurs dans une agriculture en transition dans le Saïss (Maroc). Cah Agric 24:363–371. doi: 10.1684/agr.2015.0786 Google Scholar
  6. Amichi H, Bouarfa S, Kuper M, Ducourtieux O, Imache A, Fusillier JL, Bazin G, Hartani T, Chehat F (2012) How does unequal access to groundwater contribute to marginalization of small farmers? The case of public lands in Algeria: unequal access to groundwater and marginalization of small farmers. Irrig Drain 61:34–44. doi: 10.1002/ird.1660 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antwi-Agyei P, Stringer LC, Dougill AJ (2014) Livelihood adaptations to climate variability: insights from farming households in Ghana. Reg Environ Change 14:1615–1626. doi: 10.1007/s10113-014-0597-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin JE (1981) Agroindustrial project analysis. The Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett CB, Reardon T, Webb P (2001) Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications. Food Policy 26:315–331. doi: 10.1016/S0306-9192(01)00014-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrientos-Fuentes JC, Torrico-Albino JC (2014) Socio-economic perspectives of family farming in South America: cases of Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Agron Colomb 32:266–275. doi: 10.15446/agron.colomb.v32n2.42310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bekkar Y, Compagnone C (2015) Approche socio-historique de la structuration du conseil agricole au Maroc. In: Compagnone C, Goulet F, Labarthe P (eds) Conseil privé en agriculture: acteurs, pratiques et marché. Editions Quae, Versailles, pp 167–182Google Scholar
  12. Bekkar Y, Kuper M, Errahj M, Faysse N, Gafsi M (2009) On the difficulty of managing an invisible resource: farmers’ strategies and perceptions of groundwater use, field evidence from Morocco. Irrig Drain 58:252–263. doi: 10.1002/ird.527 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benouniche M, Kuper M, Poncet J, Hartani T, Hammani A (2011) Quand les petites exploitations adoptent le goutte à goutte: initiatives locales et programmes étatiques dans le Gharb (Maroc). Cah Agric 20:40–47. doi: 10.1684/agr.2011.0476 Google Scholar
  14. Bernard J, Le Gal PY, Triomphe B, Hostiou N, Moulin CH (2011) Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity. Animal 5:961–971. doi: 10.1017/S1751731110002478 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berriane M (2002) Le maillon intérieur: la région de Fès-Meknès. In: Troin JF (ed) Maroc: régions, pays, territoires. Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris, pp 133–151Google Scholar
  16. Bouderbala N (1999) Les systèmes de propriété foncière au Maghreb. Le cas du Maroc. In: Jouve AM, Bouderbala N (eds) Politiques foncières et aménagement des structures agricoles dans les pays méditerranéens: à la mémoire de Pierre Coulomb, Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, n. 36. CIHEAM, Montpellier, pp 47–66Google Scholar
  17. Caballero R (2001) Typology of cereal-sheep farming systems in Castile-La Mancha (South-central Spain). Agric Syst 68:215–232. doi: 10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00009-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carter MR, Mesbah D (1993) Can land market reform mitigate the exclusionary aspects of rapid agro-export growth? World Dev 21:1085–1100. doi: 10.1016/0305-750X(93)90001-P CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chatterjee S, Goswami R, Bandyopadhyay P (2015) Methodology of identification and characterization of farming systems in irrigated agriculture: case study in west Bengal State of India. J Agr Sci Tech 17:1127–1140Google Scholar
  20. Choisis JP, Thevenet C, Gibon A (2012) Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France. Span J Agric Res 10:605–618. doi: 10.5424/sjar/2012103-533-11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collier P, Dercon S (2014) African agriculture in 50 years: smallholders in a rapidly changing world? World Dev 63:92–101. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cortez-Arriola J, Rossing WAH, Massiotti RDA, Scholberg JMS, Groot JCJ, Tittonell P (2015) Leverages for on-farm innovation from farm typologies? An illustration for family-based dairy farms in north-west Michoacán, Mexico. Agric Syst 135:66–76. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2014.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daskalopoulou I, Petrou A (2002) Utilising a farm typology to identify potential adopters of alternative farming activities in Greek agriculture. J Rural Stud 18:95–103. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00027-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deininger K, Byerlee D (2012) The rise of large farms in land abundant countries: do they have a future? World Dev 40:701–714. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.04.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dogliotti S, García MC, Peluffo S, Dieste JP, Pedemonte AJ, Bacigalupe GF, Scarlato M, Alliaume F, Alvarez J, Chiappe M, Rossing WAH (2014) Co-innovation of family farm systems: a systems approach to sustainable agriculture. Agric Syst 126:76–86. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2013.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dugué P, Lejars C, Ameur F, Amichi F, Braiki H, Burte J, Errahj M, Hamamouche M, Kuper M (2014) Recompositions des agricultures familiales au Maghreb: une analyse comparative dans trois situations d’irrigation avec les eaux souterraines. Rev Tiers Monde 4:99–118. doi: 10.3917/rtm.220.0101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eisenhardt KM, Graebner ME (2007) Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges. Acad Manag J 50:25–32. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2007.24160888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Errington A, Gasson R (1994) Labour use in the farm family business. Sociol Rural 34:293–307. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.1994.tb00814.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Faysse N (2015) The rationale of the Green Morocco Plan: missing links between goals and implementation. J North Afr Stud 20:622–634. doi: 10.1080/13629387.2015.1053112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Faysse N, Hartani T, Frija A, Tazekrit I, Zairi C, Challouf A (2011) Agricultural Use of Groundwater and Management Initiatives in the Maghreb: challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Aquifer Exploitation. AFDB Economic Brief 1–24Google Scholar
  31. Faysse N, Errahj M, Imache A, Kemmoun H, Labbaci T (2014) Paving the way for social learning when governance is weak: supporting dialogue between stakeholders to face a groundwater crisis in Morocco. Soc Nat Resour 27:249–264. doi: 10.1080/08941920.2013.847998 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ftouhi H, Kadiri Z, Abdellaoui EH, Bossenbroek L (2015) Partir et revenir au village. Mobilité non permanente des jeunes ruraux dans la région du Saïss (Maroc). Cah Agric 24:372–378. doi: 10.1684/agr.2015.0780 Google Scholar
  33. Gorton M, Davidova S (2004) Farm productivity and efficiency in the CEE applicant countries: a synthesis of results. Agric Econ 30:1–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-0862.2004.tb00172.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Graeub BE, Chappell MJ, Wittman H, Ledermann S, Kerr RB, Gemmill-Herren B (2015) The state of family farms in the World. World Dev 87:1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hairong Y, Yiyuan C (2015) Agrarian capitalization without capitalism? Capitalist dynamics from above and below in China. J Agrar Change 15:366–391. doi: 10.1111/joac.12121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hasnah FE, Coelli T (2004) Assessing the performance of a nucleus estate and smallholder scheme for oil palm production in West Sumatra: a stochastic frontier analysis. Agric Syst 79:17–30. doi: 10.1016/S0308-521X(03)00043-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hazell PBR (2005) Is there a future for small farms? Agric Econ 32:93–101. doi: 10.1111/j.0169-5150.2004.00016.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hazell P, Poulton C, Wiggins S, Dorward A (2010) The future of small farms: trajectories and policy priorities. World Dev 38:1349–1361. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoogesteger J, Wester P (2015) Intensive groundwater use and (in)equity: processes and governance challenges. Environ Sci Policy 51:117–124. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2015.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kahane R, Hodgkin T, Jaenicke H, Hoogendoorn C, Hermann M, (Dyno) Keatinge JDH, d’Arros Hughes J, Padulosi S, Looney N (2013) Agrobiodiversity for food security, health and income. Agron Sustain Dev 33:671–693. doi: 10.1007/s13593-013-0147-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kesavan PC, Swaminathan MS (2014) 2014 International Year of Family Farming: a boost to evergreen revolution. Curr Sci 107:1970–1974Google Scholar
  42. Labonne M (1995) Ajustement structurel au Maroc: le secteur agricole en transition? In: Allaya M (ed) Les agricultures maghrébines à l’aube de l’an 2000, Options Méditerranéennes, Série B: Etudes et Recherches, 14. CIHEAM, Montpellier, pp 297–305Google Scholar
  43. Landais E (1998) Modelling farm diversity new approaches to typology building in France. Agric Syst 58:505–527. doi: 10.1016/S0308-521X(98)00065-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Le Gal PY, Kuper M, Moulin CH, Puillet L, Sraïri MT (2007) Dispositifs de coordination entre industriel, éleveurs et périmètre irrigué dans un bassin de collecte laitier au Maroc. Cah Agric 16:265–271. doi: 10.1684/agr.2007.0117 Google Scholar
  45. Lejars C, Courilleau S (2014) Impact du développement de l’accès à l’eau souterraine sur la dynamique d’une filière irriguée. Le cas de l’oignon d’été dans le Saïs au Maroc. Cah Agric 24:1–10. doi: 10.1684/agr.2014.0729 Google Scholar
  46. Losch B, Fréguin-Gresh S (2013) Quelles agricultures face aux défis des transitions africaines? Cah Agric 22:10–15. doi: 10.1684/agr.2012.0573 Google Scholar
  47. Marshall NA, Stokes CJ, Webb NP, Marshall PA, Lankester AJ (2014) Social vulnerability to climate change in primary producers: a typology approach. Agric Ecosyst Environ 186:86–93. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2014.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McMichael P (2009) A food regime analysis of the ‘world food crisis’. Agric Hum Values 26:281–295. doi: 10.1007/s10460-009-9218-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Medina G, Almeida C, Novaes E, Godar J, Pokorny B (2015) Development conditions for family farming: lessons from Brazil. World Dev 74:386–396. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mehta L, Veldwisch GJ, Franco J (2012) Introduction to the special issue: water grabbing? Focus on the (re) appropriation of finite water resources. Water Altern 5:193–207Google Scholar
  51. Moreno-Pérez OM, Arnalte-Alegre E, Ortiz-Miranda D (2011) Breaking down the growth of family farms: a case study of an intensive Mediterranean agriculture. Agric Syst 104:500–511. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2011.03.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Oliveira F das C, Calle Collado Á, Carvalho Leite LF (2013) Autonomy and sustainability: an integrated analysis of the development of new approaches to agrosystem management in family-based farming in Carnaubais Territory, Piauí, Brazil. Agric Syst 115:1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2012.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prakash A (2005) The dark zone: groundwater irrigation, politics and social power in North Gujarat, Wageningen University water resources series. Orient Longman, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  54. Quarouch H, Kuper M, Abdellaoui EH, Bouarfa S (2014) Eaux souterraines, sources de dignité et ressources sociales: cas d’agriculteurs dans la plaine du Saïss au Maroc. Cah Agric 23:158–165. doi: 10.1684/agr.2014.0699 Google Scholar
  55. Reardon T, Barrett CB, Berdegué JA, Swinnen JFM (2009) Agrifood industry transformation and small farmers in developing countries. World Dev 37:1717–1727. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.08.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ryschawy J, Choisis N, Choisis JP, Gibon A (2013) Paths to last in mixed crop–livestock farming: lessons from an assessment of farm trajectories of change. Animal 7:673–681. doi: 10.1017/S1751731112002091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Santos JL, Madureira L, Ferreira AC, Espinosa M, Paloma SG (2016) Building an empirically-based framework to value multiple public goods of agriculture at broad supranational scales. Land Use Policy 53:56–70. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schlager E (2007) Community management of groundwater, the agricultural groundwater revolution. In: Giordano M, Villholth KG (eds) The agricultural groundwater revolution: opportunities and threats to development. CABI Publication, Wallingford, pp 131–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schroth G, Ruf F (2014) Farmer strategies for tree crop diversification in the humid tropics, a review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:139–154. doi: 10.1007/s13593-013-0175-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sourisseau JM (2015) Family farming and the worlds to come. Springer, NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Van Der Ploeg JD (2013) Ten qualities of family farming. Farming Matters 29:8–11Google Scholar
  62. Van Der Ploeg JD, Verschuren P, Verhoeven F, Pepels J (2006) Dealing with novelties: a grassland experiment reconsidered. J Environ Policy Plan 8:199–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariem Baccar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmed Bouaziz
    • 2
  • Patrick Dugué
    • 1
  • Pierre-Yves Le Gal
    • 1
  1. 1.CIRADUMR InnovationMontpellier Cedex 5France
  2. 2.Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan IIRabatMorocco

Personalised recommendations