Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 1401–1415 | Cite as

Climatic changes and their impact on socio-economic sectors in the Bhutan Himalayas: an implementation strategy

  • Andreas Hoy
  • Om Katel
  • Pankaj Thapa
  • Ngawang Dendup
  • Jörg Matschullat
Original Article


This paper contributes to an enhanced understanding of present climatic conditions, observed climate trends and regional climate vulnerability of the Bhutan Himalayas. Bhutan’s complex, often high-altitude terrain and the severe impact of the Indian summer monsoon leads to a strong exposure of the countries’ key economic sectors (agriculture, forestry, hydropower generation and tourism) to climatic changes. Climate change also threatens Bhutan’s vast biodiversity and increases the likelihood of natural hazards (e.g. glacier lake outburst floods, flash floods, droughts and forest fires). A better understanding of Bhutan’s climate and its variability, as well as observed and possible climate impacts, will help in improving the handling of regional social, economic and ecologic challenges not limited to the Himalayas. Only a few climatological studies exist for the eastern Himalayas. They mainly focus on adaptation to immediate threats by glacier lake outbursts. In contrast, this paper (1) investigates the average spatial and inner-annual diversity of the air temperature regime of Bhutan, based on local meteorological observations, (2) discusses past temperature variability, based on global datasets, and (3) relates effects of observed warming to water availability, hydropower development, natural hazards, forests, biodiversity, agriculture, human health and tourism in the Bhutan Himalayas. Results indicate a large spatial and temporal temperature variability within Bhutan and considerably increasing temperatures especially over recent decades. Implications of regional climatic changes on various socio-economic sectors and possible adaptation efforts are discussed.


Regional climate variability and change Socio-economic impacts Climate change adaptation Vulnerability hot spot Eastern Himalayas 



We thank the Bhutanese DHMS for the supply of local climate data. We also thank the two reviewers for their valuable comments, which helped in improving this publication.

Supplementary material

10113_2015_868_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)


  1. Ageta Y, Iwata S (1999) The assessment of Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) in Bhutan, report of Japan–Bhutan Joint Research 1998. Japan/Bhutan: Institute of Hydrospheric-Atmospheric Sciences of Nagoya University, Department of Geography of Tokyo Metropolitan University, and the Geological Survey of BhutanGoogle Scholar
  2. Ageta Y, Iwata S, Yabuki H, Naito N, Sakai A, Narma C, Karma (2000) Expansion of glacier lakes in recent decades in the Bhutan Himalayas. In: Nakawo M, Raymond CF, Fountain A (ed) Debris covered glaciers. Proceedings of a workshop held in September 2000 in Seattle, Washington, USA. IAHS Publication no. 264, pp 165–175. ISBN: 1-901502-31-7Google Scholar
  3. Ageta Y, Naito N, Nakawo M, Fujita K, Shankar K, Pokhrel AP, Wangda D (2001) Study project on the recent rapid shrinkage of summer-accumulation type glaciers in the Himalayas, 1997–1999. Bull Glaciol Res 18:45–49Google Scholar
  4. Allan R, Ansell T (2006) A new globally complete monthly historical gridded mean sea level pressure dataset (HadSLP2): 1850–2004. J Clim 19:5816–5842. doi: 10.1175/JCLI3937.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andy H, Sari K, Diarmid CL, Carlos C (2006) Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health. Public Health 120(7):585–596. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anisimov O, Kokorev V, Zhiltcova Y (2012) Temporal and spatial patterns of modern climate warming: case study of northern Eurasia. Clim Change 118:871–883. doi: 10.1007/s10584-013-0697-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bajracharya SR, Pradeep KM, ShresthaBR (2007) Impact of climate change on Himalayan glaciers and glacial lakes: case studies on GLOF and associated hazards in Nepal and Bhutan. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), p 131. ISBN: 978-92-9115-032-8Google Scholar
  8. Bajracharya SR, Pradeep KM, Shrestha BR (2008) Global climate change and melting of Himalayan glaciers. In: Ranade PS (ed) Melting glaciers and rising sea levels: impacts and implications. The Icfai’s University Press, Hyderabad, pp 28–46. ISBN 9788131414156Google Scholar
  9. Balling RC Jr, Vose RS, Weber GR (1998) Analysis of long-term European temperature records: 1751–1995. Clim Res 10:193–200. doi: 10.3354/cr010193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BEA (Bhutan Electricity Authority) (2010) Druk Green Power Corporation Limited, Tariff Review Report, p 66Google Scholar
  11. Becker AC, Korner C, Brun J, Guisan A, Tappelner U (2007) Ecological and land use studies along elevational gradients. Mt Res Dev 27:58–65. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhutiyani MR, Vishwas SK, Pawar NJ (2007) Long-term trends in maximum, minimum and mean air temperatures across the Northwestern Himalaya during the twentieth century. Clim Change 85(1–2):159–177. doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9196-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhutiyani MR, Kale VS, Pawar NJ (2010) Climate change and the precipitation variations in the northwestern Himalaya: 1866–2006. Int J Climatol 30:535–548. doi: 10.1002/joc.1920 Google Scholar
  14. Bisht M (2012) Bhutan–India Power Cooperation: benefits beyond bilateralism. Strateg Anal 36(5):787–803. doi: 10.1080/09700161.2012.712390 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biswas AK (2011) Cooperation or conflict in trans-boundary water management: case study of south Asia. Hydrol Sci J 56(4):662–670. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2011.572886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chhopel GK, Dulal IR, Chhophel K, Wangchuk C, Rinzin U, Dupchu K, Kunzang, Tse-ring K, Tshethar K, Dorji U, Wangchuk T, Lhamo T, Nidup J (2011) Securing the natural freshwater systems of the Bhutan Himalayas: Climate change and adaptation measures on water resources in Bhutan. A climate summit for a living Himalaya. ( Accessed 1 July 2015
  17. Compo GP, Whitaker JS, Sardeshmukh PD, Matsui N, Allan RJ, Yin X, Gleason BE, Vose RS, Rutledge G, Bessemoulin P, Brönnimann S, Brunet M, Crouthamel RI, Grant AN, Groisman PY, Jones PD, Kruk MC, Kruger AC, Marshall GJ, Maugeri M, Mok HY, Nordli Ø, Ross TF, Trigo RM, Wang XL, Woodruff SD, Worley SJ (2011) The twentieth century reanalysis project. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:1–28. doi: 10.1002/qj.776 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corlett R, Lafrankie A (1998) Potential impacts of climate change on tropical Asian forests through an influence on phenology. Clim Change 39:439–453. doi: 10.1023/A:1005328124567 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cox PA, Cox KN (eds) (1997) Encyclopaedia of rhododendron species. Glendoick Publishing, Perth, p 416. ISBN: 9780953053308Google Scholar
  20. Dahal RK, Hasegawa S (2008) Representative rainfall thresholds for landslides in the Nepal Himalaya. Geomorphology 100(3–4):429–443. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.01.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dema K (2013). Climate change and human health in Bhutan. Kuensel issue of November 30, 2013Google Scholar
  22. Dhakal DNS, Jenkins GP (2013) Risk sharing in hydro power development: case study of the Chukha Hydel Project in Bhutan. Water Policy 15(S1):109–125. doi: 10.2166/wp.2013.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dimri AP, Dash SK (2012) Winter time climatic trends in the western Himalayas. Clim Change 111:775–800. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0201-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dingman SL (1994) Physical hydrology. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, p 575. ISBN: 978-1577665618Google Scholar
  25. Ebi KL, Woodruff R, Hilderbandt AV, Corvalan C (2007) Climate change related health impacts in the Hindu Kush Himalayas. EcoHealth 4:264–270. doi: 10.1007/s10393-007-0119-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eguchi T (1987) Synoptic and meso-analysis of climatic conditions in Bhutan from September through November in, 1985. In: Ohsawa M (ed) Life zone ecology of the Bhutan Himalaya. Laboratory of Ecology, Chiba University, Chiba, pp 249–279Google Scholar
  27. Eguchi T (1997) Regional and temporal variations in precipitation in the Eastern Himalayas. Faculty of Humanities and Economics, Kochi University, Kami, pp 55–82Google Scholar
  28. Eguchi T (2008) Regional difference in thermal and moisture conditions on the slope of Tsang Chu basin, Bhutan Himalaya. Geogr Rep Tokyo Metrop Univ 43:99–106Google Scholar
  29. Eguchi T, Wangda P (2011) Synoptic and local analysis of relationship between climate and forest in the Bhutan Himalaya (Preliminary report). Renewable Natural Resources—Research and Development Centre Yusipang, Department of Forest and Park Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, 2011/01, p 33Google Scholar
  30. Eguchi T, Wangda P (2012) Difference in temperature between shallow and deep valleys of the Bhutan Himalaya. Reg Views (ed. by Komazawa University, Japan) 25:1–7Google Scholar
  31. Francesco B, Roberto R, Richard SJT (2006) Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: human health. Ecol Econ 58(3):579–591. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.07.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frich P, Alexander LV, Della-Marta P, Gleason B, Haylock MK, Tank AMG, Peterson T (2002) Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Clim Res 19:193–212. doi: 10.3354/cr019193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gong DY, Ho CH (2001) The Siberian High and climate change over middle to high latitude Asia. Theor Appl Climatol 72:1–9. doi: 10.1007/s007040200008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gurung TR (2012) Agricultural transformation in a remote community of Kengkhar, Mongar, Bhutan. J Renew Nat Res 8(1):1–12Google Scholar
  35. Gurung DB, Seeland K (2009) Ecotourism benefits and livelihood improvement for sustainable development in the nature conservation areas of Bhutan. Sustain Dev 19(5):348–358. doi: 10.1002/sd.443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gurung DR, Kulkarni AV, Giriraj A, Aung KS, Shrestha B (2012) Monitoring of seasonal snow cover in Bhutan using remote sensing technique. Curr Sci India 101(10):1364–1370Google Scholar
  37. Hartmann DL, Klein Tank AMG, Rusticucci M, Alexander LV, Brönnimann S, Charabi Y, Dentener FJ, Dlugokencky EJ, Easterling DR, Kaplan A, Soden BJ, Thorne PW, Wild M, Zhai PM (2013) Observations: atmosphere and surface. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds.) Climate change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 159–254, DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.008
  38. Hoy A (2013) Atmospheric circulation variability and relation to climate. Dissertation. TU Bergakademie Freiberg, p 146Google Scholar
  39. IGES (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies), ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (2012) Climate change challenges in the mountains: implication to adaptation needs of the Hindu Kush Himalayas. Hayama, JapanGoogle Scholar
  40. Immerzeel WW, van Beek LPH, Bierkens MFP (2010) Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science 328(5984):1382–1385. doi: 10.1126/science.1183188 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York. ISBN: 978 0521 88009-1Google Scholar
  42. Ives JD, Shrestha RB, Mool PK (2010) Formation of glacial lakes in the Hindu Kush–Himalaya and GLOF risk assessment. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Research (ICIMOD), p 94. ISBN: 978929115137 0Google Scholar
  43. Jiménez Cisneros BE, Oki T, Arnell NW, Benito G, Cogley JG, Döll P, Jiang T, Mwakalila SS (2014) Freshwater resources. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds.) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 229–269. ISBN: 9781107641655Google Scholar
  44. Karan PP (1968) Review of Bhutan: a physical and cultural geography. Prof Geogr 20(2):136–137Google Scholar
  45. Karma Ageta Y, Naito N, Iwata S, Yabuki H (2003) Glacier distribution in the Himalayas and glacier shrinkage from 1963 to 1993 in the Bhutan Himalayas. Bull Glaciol Res 20:29–40Google Scholar
  46. Karma T, Ghalley KS, Thinley U (2008). Hazard zonation for glacial lake outburst flood along Punatsangchu from Khuruthang to Lhamoyzinkha. DGM-NCAP Project (October 2006–May 2008)Google Scholar
  47. Komori J (2008) Recent expansions of glacial lakes in the Bhutan Himalayas. Quat Int 184(1):177–186. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2007.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Komori J, Koike T, Yamanokuchi T, Tshering P (2012) Glacier lake outburst events in the Bhutan Himalayas. Global Environ Res 16:59–70Google Scholar
  49. Kothawale DR, Rupa Kumar K (2005) On the recent changes in surface temperature trends over India. Geophys Res Lett 32:L18714. doi: 10.1029/2005GL023528 Google Scholar
  50. Kusters K, Wangdi N (2013) The costs of adaptation: changes in water availability and farmers’ responses in Punakha district, Bhutan. Int J Glob Warm 5(4):387–399. doi: 10.1504/IJGW.2013.057287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li L, Yang S, Wang Z, Zhu X, Tang H (2010) Evidence of warming and wetting climate over the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Arct Antarct Alp Res 42(4):449–457. doi: 10.1657/1938-4246-42.4.449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu X, Chen B (2000) Climatic warming in the Tibetan Plateau during recent decades. Int J Climatol 20:1729–1742. doi: 10.1002/1097-0088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (2008) Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319:607–610. doi: 10.1126/science.1152339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Macchi M, Gurung AM, Hoermann B, Choudhury D (2011) Climate variability and change in the Himalayas community perceptions and responses. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, p 78. ISBN: 9789291152261Google Scholar
  55. Marzeion B, Cogley JG, Richter K, Parkes D (2014) Attribution of global glacier mass loss to anthropogenic and natural causes. Science 345:919–921. doi: 10.1126/science.1254702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maskey S, Uhlenbrook S, Ojha S (2011) An analysis of snow cover changes in the Himalayan region using MODIS snow products and in situ temperature data. Clim Change 108(1–2):391–400. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0181-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCarty JP (2001) Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conserv Biol 15:320–331. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.015002320.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meenawat H, Sovacool BK (2011) Improving adaptive capacity and resilience in Bhutan. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 16(5):515–533. doi: 10.1007/s11027-010-9277-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mool PK, Wangda D, Bajracharya SR, Kunzang K, Gurung DR, Joshi SP (2001) Inventory of glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods monitoring and early warning systems in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan Region: Bhutan. International Centre of Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), p 254. ISBN: 92-9115-362-1Google Scholar
  60. Morice CR, Kennedy JJ, Rayner NA, Jones PD (2012) Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: the HadCRUT4 data set. J Geophys Res 117:D08101. doi: 10.1029/2011JD017187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. MoWHS (Ministry of Works and Human Settlement) (2008) Bhutan National urbanization strategy (BNUS). Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu 155 pp Google Scholar
  62. Nayar A (2009) When the ice melts. Nature 461(7267):1042–1044. doi: 10.1038/4611042a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. NBC (National Biodiversity Center) (2011) National action plan: biodiversity persistence and climate change. Retrieved from
  64. NCD (Nature Conservation Division) (2002) Biodiversity action plan for Bhutan 2002. Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan, ThimphuGoogle Scholar
  65. NCD (Nature Conservation Division) (2009) Biodiversity action plan for Bhutan 2009. Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan, ThimphuGoogle Scholar
  66. NEC (National Environment Commission) (2008) Bhutan environment outlook. Royal Government of Bhutan, p 112Google Scholar
  67. NEC (National Environment Commission) (2009) Strategizing climate change for Bhutan. Royal Government of Bhutan, retrieved from
  68. NEC (National Environment Commission) (2011) Second national communication to the UNFCCC. Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu 160 pp Google Scholar
  69. NSB (National Statistical Bureau) (2013) Statistical year book 2013. Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu, p 3Google Scholar
  70. Nyaupane GP, Chhetri N (2009) Vulnerability to climate change of nature-based tourism in the Nepalese Himalayas. Tour Geogr 11:95–119. doi: 10.1080/14616680802643359 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pathak D, Gajurel AP, Mool PK (2010) Climate change impacts on hazards in the eastern Himalayas. Climate change impact and vulnerability in the eastern Himalayas—technical report 5. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal. ISBN: 978 92 9115 164 6Google Scholar
  72. Qian W, Lin X (2004) Regional trends in recent temperature indices in China. Clim Res 27:119–134. doi: 10.3354/cr027119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Qin J, Yang K, Liang S, Guo X (2009) The altitudinal dependence of recent rapid warming over the Tibetan Plateau. Clim Change 97(1–2):321–327. doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9733-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rai R, Helen KR, Naresh S, Baburam L (2012) Invasive plants—do they devastate or diversify rural livelihoods? Rural farmers’ perception of three invasive plants in Nepal. J Nat Conserv 20(3):170–176. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2012.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rhein MS, Rintoul R, Aoki S, Campos E, Chambers D, Feely RA, Gulev S, Johnson GC, Josey SA, Kostianoy A, Mauritzen C, Roemmich D, Talley LD, Wang F (2013) Observations: ocean. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds.) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 255–316. doi: 10.1017/CBO97811 07415324.010
  76. Richardson SD, Reynolds JM (2000) An overview of glacial hazards in the Himalayas. Quat Int 65–66:31–47. doi: 10.1016/S1040-6182(99)00035-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rinzin C, Vermuellen WJV, Glasbergen P (2007) Ecotourism as a mechanism for sustainable development: the case of Bhutan. Environ Sci 4(2):109–125. doi: 10.1080/15693430701365420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rohde R, Muller RA, Jacobsen R, Muller E, Perlmutter S, Rosenfeld A, Wurtele J, Groom D, Wickham C (2013a) A new estimate of the average earth surface land temperature spanning 1753 to 2011. Geoinf Geostat An Overv 1(1):1–7. doi: 10.4172/gigs.1000101 Google Scholar
  79. Rohde R, Muller R, Jacobsen R, Perlmutter S, Rosenfeld A, Wurtele J, Curry J, Wickham C, Mosher S (2013b) Berkeley earth temperature averaging process. Geoinf Geostat An Overv 1(2):1–13. doi: 10.4172/gigs.1000103 Google Scholar
  80. Rupper S, Schaefer JM, Landon KB, Koenig LS, Tsering K, Cook ER (2012) Sensitivity and response of Bhutanese glaciers to atmospheric warming. Geophys Res Lett 39:L19503. doi: 10.1029/2012GL053010 Google Scholar
  81. Sharma E, Chettri N, Tse-ring K, Shrestha AB, Jing F, Mool P, Eriksson M (2009) Climate change impact and vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas. ICIMOD Synthesis Report, p 32. ISBN: 978 92 9115 136 3Google Scholar
  82. Shi J, Luo Y, Zhou F, He P (2010) The relationship between invasive alien species and main climatic zones. Biodivers Conserv 19:2485–2500. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9855-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shrestha AB, Devkota LP (2010) Climate change in the eastern Himalayas: observed trends and model projections; Technical Report 1. Kathmandu, ICIMOD, p 20. ISBN: 978 92 9115 153 0Google Scholar
  84. Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Mayewski PA, Dibb JE (1999) Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971–1994. J Climate 12(9):1–12. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. SNC (Second National Communication) (2011) Second National Communication to the UNFCCC. National Environment Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan, p 151. ISBN: 978-99936-865-0-7Google Scholar
  86. Sovacool BK, D’Agostino AL, Meenawat H, Rawlani A (2012a) Expert views of climate change adaptation in least developed Asia. J Environ Manage 97:78–88. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sovacool BK, D’Agostino AL, Rawlani A, Meenawat H (2012b) Improving climate change adaptation in least developed Asia. Environ Sci Policy 21:112–125. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tobgay T, Torres CE, Na-Bangchang K (2011) Malaria prevention and control in Bhutan: successes and challenges. Acta Tropic 117:225–228. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tshering D, Sithey G (2008) Climate change and health in Bhutan, capacity strengthening in the least developed countries for adaptation to climate change (CLACC), p 33. Accessed 1 July 2015
  90. Ukita J, Narama C, Tadono T, Yamanokuchi T, Tomiyama N, Kawamoto S, Abe C, Uda T, Yabuki H, Fujita K, Nishimura K (2011) Glacial lake inventory of Bhutan using ALOS data: Part I: methods and preliminary results. Ann Glaciol 52(58):65–71. doi: 10.3189/172756411797252293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. UNDP (2012) Glacial lake outburst flood. Reducing risk and ensuring preparedness. Report on the international conference. 5.–7.12.2012, Paro Bhutan, p 50Google Scholar
  92. Watanabe T, Rothacher D (1996) The 1994 Lugge Tsho glacial lake outburst flood, Bhutan Himalaya. Mt Res Dev 16:77–81. doi: 10.2307/3673897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Williams JS, Kutzbach J (2007) Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5738–5742. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0606292104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. WMO (World Health Organization) (2010) Bhutan Malaria Control Programme Review: A Report. WHO SEA-MAL-264: 1–59Google Scholar
  95. Xie H, Ye J, Liu X, Chongyi E (2010) Warming and drying trends on the Tibetan Plateau (1971–2005). Theor Appl Climatol 101:241–253. doi: 10.1007/s00704-009-0215-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Xu J, Grumbine RE, Shrestha A, Eriksson M, Yang X, Wang Y, Wilkesh A (2009) The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity and livelihoods. Conserv Biol 23(3):520–530. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01237.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yao TD, Guo XJ, Lonnie T, Duan KQ, Wang NL, Pu JC, Xu BQ, Yang XX, Sun WZ (2006) δ18O record and temperature change over the past 100 years in ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau. Sci China Ser D Earth Sci 49(1):1–9. doi: 10.1007/s11430-004-5096-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Hoy
    • 1
  • Om Katel
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pankaj Thapa
    • 4
  • Ngawang Dendup
    • 5
  • Jörg Matschullat
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Environmental Research CentreTU Bergakademie FreibergFreibergGermany
  2. 2.Department of Forestry, College of Natural ResourcesRoyal University of BhutanLobesaBhutan
  3. 3.Division of Regional Resources Management, Graduate School of Bio-agricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Geography and Planning, Sherubtse CollegeRoyal University of BhutanKanglungBhutan
  5. 5.Department of Economics, Sherubtse CollegeRoyal University of BhutanKanglungBhutan

Personalised recommendations