A comparative analysis of the impacts of climate change and irrigation on land surface and subsurface hydrology in the North China Plain
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Few studies have investigated the similar/different characteristics of regional environmental changes induced by climate change and human activities (e.g., irrigation, groundwater pumping). In this study, three climate change scenarios and one irrigation scenario were simulated using the Community Land Model 4.0 to investigate and compare the water-related environmental changes induced by climate change and irrigation in the North China Plain (NCP). Compared to future change climate scenarios, extensive groundwater-fed irrigation in the NCP could have similar magnitude of effects on land surface fluxes and states, but with much larger effects on subsurface water fluxes/states. For example, it was found that groundwater-fed irrigation has led to the decrease of annual mean water table depth by 1 m in major agricultural areas of the NCP while climate change has negligible impacts on water table depth. That is, human water use tends to dominate the subsurface water balance in the NCP. Moreover, climate change and irrigation exhibited different effects on the vertical profile of soil column. That is, irrigation appears to have much larger effects on the top layer soil moisture (SM) whereas increase in precipitation associated with climate change exerts more influence on lower layer SM. Through indentifying the similar/different characteristics between climate change and irrigation, our results highlight the importance of exactly accounting for the effects of human water use and could provide guidance for determining effective measures for adapting to environmental changes induced by climate change and human water use for this region.
KeywordsClimate change Irrigation Land surface/subsurface hydrology North China Plain
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41171031), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB955403), and Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. M. Huang and L. R. Leung are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Regional and Global Climate Modeling Program through the bilateral agreement between U.S. Department of Energy and China Ministry of Science and Technology on regional climate research. PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments that were helpful in improving this manuscript.
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