Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 169–182 | Cite as

Examining relationships between climate change and mental health in the Circumpolar North

  • Ashlee Cunsolo Willox
  • Eleanor Stephenson
  • Jim Allen
  • François Bourque
  • Alexander Drossos
  • Sigmund Elgarøy
  • Michael J. Kral
  • Ian Mauro
  • Joshua Moses
  • Tristan Pearce
  • Joanna Petrasek MacDonald
  • Lisa Wexler
Original Article

Abstract

Indigenous people living in the Circumpolar North rely, to varying degrees, on the natural environment and the resources it provides for their lifestyle and livelihoods. As a consequence, these Northern Indigenous peoples may be more sensitive to global climate change, which has implications for food security, cultural practices, and health and well-being. To date, most research on the human dimensions of climate change in the Circumpolar North has focused on biophysical issues and their consequences, such as changing sea ice regimes affecting travel to hunting grounds or the effects of melting permafrost on built infrastructure. Less is known about how these changes in the environment affect mental health and well-being. In this paper, we build upon existing research, combined with our community-based research and professional mental health practices, to outline some pathways and mechanisms through which climate change may adversely impact mental health and well-being in the Circumpolar North. Our analysis indicates that mental health may be affected by climate change due to changes to land, ice, snow, weather, and sense of place; impacts to physical health; damage to infrastructure; indirect impacts via media, research, and policy; and through the compounding of existing stress and distress. We argue that climate change is likely an emerging mental health challenge for Circumpolar Indigenous populations and efforts to respond through research, policy, and mental health programming should be a priority. We conclude by identifying next steps in research, outlining points for policy, and calling for additional mental health resources that are locally responsive and culturally relevant.

Keywords

Climate change Mental health Circumpolar North Indigenous Arctic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the many wonderful Circumpolar communities, health professionals, and Indigenous partners with whom we have been collaborating and from whom we have learned so much. We also wish to thank Adam Bonnycastle (University of Guelph) for creating the map, and the two anonymous reviewers for providing very helpful comments and suggestions, which improved this article.

References

  1. ACIA (2005) Impacts of a warming Arctic–Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Adelson N (2009) Toward a recuperation of souls and bodies: community healing and the complex interplay of faith and history. In: Kirmayer L, Valaskakis G (eds) Healing traditions: the mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 272–288Google Scholar
  3. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16:268–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrecht G, Sartore GM, Connor L, Higginbotham N, Freeman S, Kelly B, Stain H, Tonna A, Pollard G (2007) Solastalgia: the distress caused by environmental change. Australas Psychiatry 15(Suppl):95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen J, Levintova M, Mohatt GV (2011) Suicide and alcohol-related disorders in the U.S. Arctic: boosting research to address a primary determinant of health disparities. Int J Circumpolar Health 70(5):473–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen J, Hopper K, Wexler L, Kral M, Rasmus, Nystad K (2013). Mapping resilience pathways of Indigenous youth in five circumpolar communities. Transcult Psychiatry. doi: 10.1177/1363461513497232
  7. Berkes F, Jolly D (2002) Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic community. Conserv Ecol 5: (online) http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art18/
  8. Berry H (2009) Pearl in the oyster: climate change as a mental health opportunity. Australas Psychiatry 17:453–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berry H, Bowen K, Kjellstrom T (2010a) Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. Int J Public Health 55:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry HL, Butler JR, Burgess CP, King UG, Tsey K, Cadet-James YL, Rigby CW, Raphael B (2010b) Mind, body, spirit: co-benefits for mental health from climate change adaptation and caring for country in remote Aboriginal Australian communities. NSW Public Health Bull 21:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berry H, Hogan A, Owen J, Rickwood D, Fragar L (2011) Climate change and farmer’s mental health: risks and responses. Asia Pac J of Public Health 23:1295–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bjerregaard P, Young K, Dewailly E, Ebbesson S (2004) Indigenous health in the Arctic: an overview of circumpolar Inuit population. Scand J Public Health 32(5):390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costello A, Abbas M, Allen A, Ball S, Bell S, Bellamy R, Friel S, Grace N, Johnson A, Kett M, Lee M, Levy C, Maslin M, McCoy D, McGuire B, Montgomery H, Napier D, Pagel C, Patel J, Antonio J, de Oliveira P, Redclift N, Rees H, Ragger D, Scott J, Stephenson J, Twigg J, Wolff J, Patterson C (2009) Managing the health effects of climate change. Lancet 373:1693–7333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cunsolo Willox A, Harper S, Ford J, Landman K, Houle K, Edge V, The Rigolet Inuit Community Government (2012) ‘From this place and of this place’: climate change, sense of place, and health in Nunatsiavut, Canada. Soc Sci Med 75:538–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cunsolo Willox A, Harper S, Ford J, Landman K, Houle K, Edge V, The Rigolet Inuit Community Government (2013a) Climate change and mental health: a case study from Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Labrador, Canada. Clim Change 121:255–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cunsolo Willox A, Harper S, Edge V, Landman K, Houle K, Ford J, The Rigolet Inuit Community Government (2013b) ‘The land enriches the soul’: on climatic and environmental change, affect, and emotional health and well-being in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada. Emotion Space Soc 6:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doherty TJ, Clayton S (2011) The psychological impacts of global climate change. Am Psychol 66:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dowsley M, Gearheard S, Johnson N, Inksetter J (2010) Should we turn the tent? Inuit women and climate change. Études/Inuit/Studies 34:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duerden F (2004) Translating climate change impacts at the local level. Arctic 57(2):204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ebi K (2011) Climate change and health risks: assessing and responding to them through ‘adaptive management’. Health Aff 30:924–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ebi KL, Kovats SR, Menne B (2006) An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change. Environ Health Perspect 114:1930–1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Egeland G, Pacey A, Cao Z, Sobol I (2010) Food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007–2008. Can Med Assoc J 182(3):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evengard B, Sauerborn R (2009) Climate change influences infectious diseases both in the Arctic and the tropics: joining the dots. Glob Health Action 2. http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/2106/2507
  24. Ford JD (2009) Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic’s Inuit population. Environ Res Lett 4(2):024006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ford JD (2012) Indigenous health and climate change. Am J Public Health 102:1260–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ford JD, Pearce T (2012) Climate change vulnerability and adaptation research focusing on the Inuit subsistence sector in Canada: directions for future research. Can Geogr 56(2):275–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ford JD, Smit B (2004) A framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities in the Canadian arctic to risks associated with climate change. Arctic 57:389–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J (2006a) Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: a case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Glob Environ Chang 16:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J, MacDonald J (2006b) Vulnerability to climate change in Igloolik, Nunavut: what we can learn from the past and present. Polar Record 42:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J, MacDonald J (2006c) Vulnerability to climate change in Igloolik, Nunavut: what we can learn from the past and present. Polar Record 42:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J (2006d) Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: a case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Glob Environ Chang 16:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, King M, Furgal C (2010) Vulnerability of Aboriginal health systems in Canada to climate change. Glob Environ Chang 20:668–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ford JD, Bolton K, Shirley J, Pearce T, Tremblay M, Westlake M (2012) Mapping human dimensions of climate change research in the Canadian Arctic. Ambio 41(8):808–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fritze JG, Blashki GA, Burke S, Wiseman J (2008) Hope, despair, and transformation: Climate change and the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. Int J Mental Health Syst, 2. http://www.ijmhs.com/content/2/1/13
  35. Furgal CM, Seguin J (2006) Climate change, health and community adaptive capacity: lessons from the Canadian North. Environ Health Perspect 114:1964–1970Google Scholar
  36. Furgal C, Martin D, Gosselin P (2002) Climate change and health in Nunavik and Labrador: lessons from Inuit knowledge. In: Krupnik I, Jolly D (eds) The earth is faster now: Indigenous observations of Arctic change. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, pp 266–299Google Scholar
  37. Füssel HM (2009) Assessing adaptation to the health risks of climate change: what guidance can existing frameworks provide? Int J Environ Health Res 18:37–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Füssel HM, Klein RTJ (2006) Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Glob Environ Chang 75:301–329Google Scholar
  39. Gone J (2009) Encountering professional psychology: re-envisioning mental health services for native North America. In: Kirmayer L, Valaskakis G (eds) Healing traditions: the mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 419–439Google Scholar
  40. Gracey M, King M (2009) Indigenous health part 1: determinants and disease patterns. Lancet 374(9683):65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hajkowicz SA, Heyenga S, Moffat K (2011) The relationship between mining and socio-economic well being in Australia’s regions. Resour Policy 36:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harper SL, Edge V, Wallace C, Berke O, McEwen S (2011) Comparison of trends in weather, water quality, and infectious gastrointestinal illness in two Inuit communities in Nunatsiavut, Canada: potential implications for climate change. EcoHealth 8:93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hart CR, Berry HL, Tonna AM (2011) Improving the mental health of rural New South Wales communities facing drought and other adversities. Aust J Rural Health 19:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Horton G, Hanna L, Kelly B (2010) Drought, drying, and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas. Australas J Ageing 29:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hunter E (2009) ‘Radical hope’ and rain: climate change and the mental health of Indigenous residents of northern Australia. Australas Psychiatry 17:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. IPCC (2013) Stocker TF, Qin D (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Working Group 1 Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Google Scholar
  47. IPCC (2014) Barros V, Field C (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmenta Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  48. ITK (2010) Health indicators of Inuit Nunangat within the Canadian context (1994–1998 and 199–2003). Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. https://www.itk.ca/publication/health-indicators-inuit-nunangat-within-canadian-context. Accessed April 29, 2013
  49. Jong M (2004) Managing suicides via videoconferencing in a remote Northern community in Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health 63(4):422–428Google Scholar
  50. Joyce SL, Tomlin SM, Somerford PJ, Weeramanthri TS (2013) Health behaviours and outcomes associated with fly-in fly-out and shift workers in Western Australia. Internal Med J 43(4):440–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. King M, Smith A, Gracey M (2009) Indigenous health part 2: the underlying causes of the health gap. Lancet 374(9683):76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kirmayer L, Brass G, Valaskakis G (2009a) Conclusion: healing/invention/tradition. In: Kirmayer L, Valaskakis G (eds) Healing traditions: the mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 440–472Google Scholar
  53. Kirmayer L, Fletcher C, Watt R (2009b) Locating the ecocentric self: Inuit concepts of mental health and illness. In: Kirmayer L, Valaskakis G (eds) Healing traditions: the mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 289–314Google Scholar
  54. Kirmayer L, Tait C, Simpson C (2009c) The mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada: transformations of identity and community. In: Kirmayer L, Valaskakis G (eds) Healing traditions: the mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 3–35Google Scholar
  55. Kirmayer L, Dandeneau S, Marshall E, Phillips M, Williamson K (2011) Rethinking resilience from Indigenous perspectives. Can J Psychiatry-Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie 56(2):84–91Google Scholar
  56. Kral MJ (2012) Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada. Cult Med Psychiatry 36:306–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kral MJ, Idlout L (2009) Community wellness and social action in the Canadian Arctic: collective agency as subjective well-being. In: Valaskakis G, Kirmayer L (eds) Healing traditions: The mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 315–334Google Scholar
  58. Kral MJ, Wiebe P, Nisbet K, Dallas C, Okalik L, Enuaraq N, Cinotta J (2009) Canadian Inuit community engagement in suicide prevention. Int J Circumpolar Health 68(3):292–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kral MJ, Idlout L, Minoire JB, Dyck RJ, Kirmayer LJ (2011) Unikkaartuit: meanings of well-being, unhappiness, health, and community change among Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Am J Community Psychol 48:426–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kral MJ, Salusky I, Inuksuk P, Angutimarik L, Tulugardjuk N (forthcoming). Tunngajuq: stress and resilience among Inuit youth in Nunavut, Canada. Transcult PsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  61. Krupnik I, Aporta C, Gearheard S, Laidler G, Kielsen Holm L (eds) (2010) Siku: knowing our ice: documenting Inuit sea ice knowledge and use. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Kunuk Z, Mauro I (2010) Qapirangajuq: Inuit knowledge and climate change. Igloolik Isuma productions. www.isuma.tv/ikcc
  63. Lear J (2006) Radical hope: ethics in the face of cultural devastation. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  64. Lear J (2007) Working through the end of civilization. Int J Psycholanal 88:291–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lehti V, Niemelä S, Hoven C, Mandell D, Sourander A (2009) Mental health, substance use, and suicidal behaviour among young Indigenous people in the Arctic: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 69:1194–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marmot M, Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2007) Achieving health equity: from root causes to fair outcomes. Lancet 370(9593):1153–1163. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61385-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Marrone S (2007) Understanding barriers to health care: a review of disparities in health care services among Indigenous populations. Int J Circumpolar Health 66(3):188–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Martin D, Bélanger D, Gosselin P, Brazeau J, Furgal C, Déry S (2007) Drinking water and potential threats to human health in Nunavik: adaptation strategies under climate change conditions. Arctic 60(2):195–202Google Scholar
  69. Mclean KN (2012) Mental health and well-being in resident mine workers: out of the fly-in fly-out box. Aust J Rural Health 20:126–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Minore B, Boone M, Katt M, Kinch P, Birch S (2009) Addressing the realities of health care in northern Aboriginal communities through participatory action research. J Interprof Care 18(4):360–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Myers SS, Patz JA (2009) Emerging threats to human health from global environmental change. Annu Rev Environ Resour 34:223–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Noble BF, Bronson JE (2005) Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada’s northern mining resource sector. Arctic 58:395–405Google Scholar
  73. Nuttall M (1998) Protecting the Arctic: Indigenous peoples and cultural survival. Gordon Beach, BedfordGoogle Scholar
  74. Nuttall M (2010) Anticipation, climate change, and movement in Greenland. Études/Inuit/Studies 34:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nystad T, Melhus M, Lund E (2006) Samisktalende er mindre fornøyd med legetjenestene. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 126:738–740Google Scholar
  76. Page LA, Howard LM (2010) The impact of climate change on mental health (but will mental health be discussed at Copenhagen?). Psychol Med 40:177–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Parkinson AJ, Butler JC (2005) Potential impacts of climate change on infectious disease in the Arctic. Int J Circumpolar Health 64:478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Parkinson AJ, Evengard B (2009) Climate change, its impact on human health in the Arctic and the public health response to threats of emerging infectious diseases. Glob Health Action 2. http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/2075/2566
  79. Pearce T, Smit B, Dierden F, Ford J, Goose A, Kataoyak F (2010) Inuit vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Polar Rec 46(237):157–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pearce T, Ford JD, Duerden F, Smit B, Andrachuk M, Berrang-Ford L, Smith T (2011a) Advancing adaptation planning for climate change in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR): a review and critique. Reg Environ Change 11(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pearce T, Wright H, Notaina R, Kudlak A, Smit B, Ford J, Furgal C (2011b) Transmission of environmental knowledge and land skills among Inuit men in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Hum Ecol 39(3):271–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Polain JD, Berry HL, Hoskin J (2011) Rapid changes, climate adversity, and the next ‘big dry’: older farmers’ mental health. Aust J of Rural Health 19:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prowse T, Furgal C (2009) Northern Canada in a changing climate: major findings and conclusions. Ambio 38:290–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Prowse T, Furgal C, Bonsai B, Edwards T (2009) Climatic conditions in Northern Canada: past and future. Ambio 38:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reser J, Swim J (2011) Adapting to and coping with the threats and impacts of climate change. Am Psychol 66(4):277–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Richmond C (2007) Narratives of social support and health in Aboriginal communities. Can J Public Health 98(4):347–351Google Scholar
  87. Rigby C, Rosen A, Berry H, Hart C (2011) If the land’s sick, we’re sick: the impact of prolonged drought on the social and emotional well-being of Aboriginal communities in rural New South Wales. Aust J Rural Health 19:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sartore G, Kelly B, Stain H, Albrecht G, Higginbotham N (2008) Control, uncertainty, and expectations for the future: a qualitative study of the impact of drought on a rural Australian community. Rural Remote Health 8:950Google Scholar
  89. Shandro JA, Veiga MM, Shoveller J, Scoble M, Koehoorn M (2011) Perspectives on community health issues and the mining boom–bust cycle. Resour Policy 36:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sharma S, Cao X, Roache C, Buchan A, Reid R, Gittelsohn J (2010) Assessing dietary intake in a population undergoing a rapid transition in diet and lifestyle: the Arctic Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Br J Nutr 103:749–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stevenson L (2012) The psychic life of biopolitics: survival, cooperation, and Inuit community. Am Ethnol 39(3):592–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Swim J, Clayton S, Doherty T, Gifford R, Howard G, Reser J, Stern P, Weber E (2010) Psychology and global climate change: addressing a multifaceted phenomenon and set of challenges. A report of the American Psychological Association task force on the interface between psychology and global climate change 2010: http://www.apa.org/science/about/publications/climate-change-booklet.pdf
  94. Swim J, Stern P, Doherty T, Clayton S, Reser J, Weber E, Gifford R, Howard G (2011) Psychology’s contributions to understanding and addressing global climate change. Am Psychol 66:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tester T, McNicoll P (2004) Isumagijaksaq: mindful of the state: social constructions of Inuit suicide. Soc Sci Med 58:2625–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Waldram J (2009) Culture and Aboriginality in the study of mental health. In: Kirmayer L, Valaskakis G (eds) Healing traditions: the mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 56–79Google Scholar
  97. Wenzel GW (2009) Canadian Inuit subsistence and ecological instability—if the climate changes, must the Inuit? Polar Res 28(1):89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wexler L (2009) Identifying colonial discourses in Inupiat young people’s narratives as a way to understand the no future of Inupiat youth suicide. J Am Indian Alask Nativ Mental Health Res 16(1):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wexler L (2011) Behavioral health services “don’t work for us”: cultural incongruities in human service systems for Alaska Native communities. Am J Community Psychol 47(1–2):157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wexler L, Gone J (2012) Examining cultural incongruities in Western and Indigenous suicide prevention to develop responsive programming. Am J Public Health 102(5):800–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wexler L, Graves K (2008) The importance of culturally-responsive training for building a behavioral health workforce in Alaska Native villages: a case study from Northwest Alaska. J Rural Mental Health 32(3):22–33Google Scholar
  102. Wexler L, Joule L, Garoutte J, Mazziotti J, Baldwin E, Griffin M, Jernigan K, Hopper K, CIPA Team (2013) “Being responsible, respectful, trying to keep the tradition alive:” cultural resilience and growing up in an Alaska native community. Transcult PsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  103. Wolf J, de Shalit A (2007) Disadvantage. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Young K (ed) (2012) Circumpolar health atlas. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashlee Cunsolo Willox
    • 1
  • Eleanor Stephenson
    • 2
  • Jim Allen
    • 3
  • François Bourque
    • 4
  • Alexander Drossos
    • 5
  • Sigmund Elgarøy
    • 6
  • Michael J. Kral
    • 7
  • Ian Mauro
    • 8
  • Joshua Moses
    • 9
  • Tristan Pearce
    • 10
    • 11
  • Joanna Petrasek MacDonald
    • 2
  • Lisa Wexler
    • 12
  1. 1.Departments of Nursing and Indigenous StudiesCape Breton UniversitySydneyCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of Biobehavioral Health and Population SciencesUniversity of Minnesota Medical SchoolDuluthUSA
  4. 4.Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  6. 6.SANKS—Sami National Centre for Mental HealthLakselvNorway
  7. 7.Departments of Psychology and AnthropologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  8. 8.Department of GeographyUniversity of WinnipegWinnipegCanada
  9. 9.Departments of Anthropology and Environmental StudiesHaverford CollegeHaverfordUSA
  10. 10.Faculty of Arts and Business, Sustainability Research CentreUniversity of the Sunshine CoastSunshine CoastAustralia
  11. 11.Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  12. 12.Division of Community Health Studies, Department of Public HealthUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations