Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Advancing adaptation planning for climate change in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR): a review and critique

  • Tristan Pearce
  • James D. Ford
  • Frank Duerden
  • Barry Smit
  • Mark Andrachuk
  • Lea Berrang-Ford
  • Tanya Smith
Review Article

Abstract

This paper reviews scientific and gray literature addressing climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) in the western Canadian Arctic. The review is structured using a vulnerability framework, and 420 documents related directly or indirectly to climate change are analyzed to provide insights on the current state of knowledge on climate change vulnerability in the ISR as a basis for supporting future research and long-term adaptation planning in the region. The literature documents evidence of climate change in the ISR which is compromising food security and health status, limiting transportation access and travel routes to hunting grounds, and damaging municipal infrastructure. Adaptations are being employed to manage changing conditions; however, many of the adaptations being undertaken are short term, ad-hoc, and reactive in nature. Limited long-term strategic planning for climate change is being undertaken. Current climate change risks are expected to continue in the future with further implications for communities but less is known about the adaptive capacity of communities. This review identifies the importance of targeted vulnerability research that works closely with community members and decision makers to understand the interactions between current and projected climate change and the factors which condition vulnerability and influence adaptation. Research gaps are identified, and recommendations for advancing adaptation planning are outlined.

Keywords

Climate change Vulnerability Adaptation Arctic Inuvialuit Settlement Region Inuvialuit Review Critique 

References

  1. ACIA (2005) Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16:268–281Google Scholar
  3. Adger N, Dessai S, Goulden M, Hulme M, Lorenzoni I, Nelson D, Otto Naess L, Wolf J, Wreford A (2009) Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Clim Change 93(3–4):335–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. AHDR (2004) Arctic human development report. Stefansson Arctic Institute, AkureyriGoogle Scholar
  5. Alessa L, Kliskey A, Busey R, Hinzman L, White D (2008) Freshwater vulnerabilities and resilience on the Seward Peninsula: integrating multiple dimensions of landscape change. Glob Environ Change Human Policy Dimens 18(2):256–270Google Scholar
  6. Andrachuk M (2008) An assessment of the vulnerability of Tuktoyaktuk to environmental and socio-economic changes. Master of Arts, University of GuelphGoogle Scholar
  7. Anisimov O, Velichko A, Demchenko P, Eliseev A, Mokhov I, Nechaev V (2002) Effect of climate change on permafrost in the past, present, and future. Izvestiya Atmos Ocean Phys 38(1):25–39Google Scholar
  8. Anisimov O, Vaughan D, Callaghan T, Furgal C, Marchant H, Prowse T, Vilhjalmsson H, Walsh J (2007) Chapter 15: polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In: Parry M, Palutikof J, van der Linden P, Hanson C (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 653–685Google Scholar
  9. Barber D, Hanesiak J (2004) Meteorlogical forcing of sea ice concentrations in the southern Beaufort Sea over the period 1979 to 2000. J Geophyscial Res 109:1–16Google Scholar
  10. Barber D, Lukovich J, Keogak J, Baryluk S, Fortier L, Henry G (2008) The changing climate of the Arctic. Arctic 61(suppl. 1):7–26Google Scholar
  11. Bates P (2007) Inuit and scientific philosophies about planning, prediction, and uncertainty. Arctic Anthropol 44(2):87–100Google Scholar
  12. Belliveau S, Smit B, Bradshaw B (2006) Multiple exposures and dynamic vulnerability: evidence from the grape and wine industry in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Glob Environ Change 20:1–21Google Scholar
  13. Berkes F (1999) Sacred ecology: traditional ecological knowledge and resource management. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Berkes F, Jolly D (2002) Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic community. Conserv Ecol 5(2). Available via. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art18/. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  15. Betts M (2005) Seven focal economies for six focal places: the development of economic diversity in the western Canadian Arctic. Arctic Anthropol 42(1):47–87Google Scholar
  16. Bone R, Long S, Mcpherson P (1997) Settlements in the mackenzie basin: now and in the future 2050. In: Cohen S (ed) Mackenzie basin impact study (MBIS). Atmospheric Environment Services, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, pp 265–271Google Scholar
  17. Borsy E (2006) The impacts of climate change on the availability of granular resources in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Northwest Territories. Master of Applied Science, Ryerson UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. Bromley R (1996) Characteristics and management implications of the spring waterfowl hunt in the western Canadian arctic, Northwest Territories. Arctic 49(1):70–85Google Scholar
  19. Brooks N (2003) Vulnerability, risk and adaptation: a conceptual framework. Norwich, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Working Paper 38: 20Google Scholar
  20. Burton I (2006) Adapt and thrive: options for reducing the climate-change adaptation deficit. Policy Options (December 2005–January 2006):32–38Google Scholar
  21. Carmack E, Macdonald R (2008) Water and ice-related phenomena in the coastal region of the Beaufort Sea: some parallels between native experience and western science. Arctic 61(3):265–280Google Scholar
  22. Catto N, Parewick K (2008) Hazard and vulnerability assessment and adaptive planning: mutual and multilateral community-researcher communication, arctic Canada. In: Liverman D, Pereira C, Marker B (eds) Communicating environmental geoscience. Geological Society, London, pp 123–140Google Scholar
  23. Centre for Reviews, Dissemination (CRD) (2001) Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness: CRD’s guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews. York University, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen S (1997) Mackenzie basin impact study. Atmospheric Environment Services, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, p 372Google Scholar
  25. Collings P, Wenzel G, Condon R (1998) Modern food sharing networks and community integration in the Central Canadian Arctic. Arctic 51(4):301–314Google Scholar
  26. Comiso J, Parkinson C, Gertsen R, Stock L (2008) Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 35:L01703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Community of Aklavik, Nickels S, Furgal C, Castleden J, Armstrong B, Buell M, Dillion D, Fonger R, Moss-Davies P (2005) Unikkaaqatigiit—Putting the Human Face on Climate Change—Perspectives from Aklavik, Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  28. Community of Holman Island, Fonger R, Moss-Davies P (2005) Unikkaaqatigiit—Putting the Human Face on Climate Change—Perspectives from Holman Island, Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  29. Community of Inuvik, Nickels S, Furgal C, Castleden J, Armstrong B, Binder R, Buell M, Dillion D, Fonger R, Moss-Davies P (2005) Unikkaaqatigiit—Putting the Human Face on Climate Change—Perspectives from Inuvik, Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  30. Community of Paulatuk, Fonger R, Moss-Davies P (2005) Unikkaaqatigiit—Putting the Human Face on Climate Change—Perspectives from Paulatuk, Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  31. Community of Tuktoyaktuk, Nickels S, Furgal C, Castleden J, Armstrong B, Binder R, Buell M, Dillion D, Fonger R, Moss-Davies P (2005) Unikkaaqatigiit—Putting the Human Face on Climate Change—Perspectives from Tuktoyaktuk, Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  32. Condon R, Collings P, Wenzel G (1995) The best part of life: subsistence hunting, ethnicity, and economic development among young adult Inuit males. Arctic 48(1):31–46Google Scholar
  33. Corell R (2006) Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective. Ambio 35(4):148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Couture N, Pollard W (2007) Modelling geomorphic response to climatic change. Clim Change 85:407–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Couture R, Robinson S, Burgess M, Solomon S (2002) Climate change, perma- frost, and community infrastructure: a compilation of background material from a pilot study of Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories. Geol Surv Canada Open File 3867:83Google Scholar
  36. Dickson D, Gilchrist H (2002) Status of marine birds of the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Arctic 55(Supp. 1):46–58Google Scholar
  37. Duerden F (2004) Translating climate change impacts at the community level. Arctic 57(2):204–212Google Scholar
  38. Duerden F, Beasley E (2006) Assessing community vulnerabilities to environmental change in the Inuvialuit region. In: Riewe R, Oakes J (eds) Climate change: linking traditional and scientific knowledge. Aboriginal Issues Press, Winnipeg, pp 81–94Google Scholar
  39. Environment and Natural Resources NWT (2006) Caribou forever—our heritage, our responsibility: a barren-ground caribou management strategy for the Northwest Teritories 2006–2010, Yellowknife, p 38Google Scholar
  40. Fast H, Chiperzak D, Cott K, Elliott G (2005) Integrated management planning in Canada’s western Arctic: an adaptive consultation process. In: Berkes F, Fast H, Manseau M, Diduck A (eds) Breaking ice: renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian north. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, pp 95–119Google Scholar
  41. FJMC (2000) Tuktoyaktuk community conservation plan. Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Tuktoyaktyk, Northwest Territories, p 168Google Scholar
  42. Forbes B, Stammler F (2009) Arctic climate change discourse: the contrasting politics of research agendas in the West and Russia. Polar Rec 28:28–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ford J (2009a) Vulnerability of Inuit food systems as a consequence of climate change: a case study from Igloolik, Nunavut. Reg Environ Change 9(2):83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ford J (2009b) Sea ice change in arctic Canada: are there limits to Inuit adaptation? In: Adger N, Lorenzoni I, O’Brien K (eds) Adapting to climate change: thresholds, values, and governance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 114–128Google Scholar
  45. Ford J, Pearce T (2010) What we know, do not know, and need to know about climate change vulnerability in the western Canadian Arctic: a systematic literature review. Environ Res Lett 5:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ford J, Smit B (2004) A framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities in the Canadian Arctic to risks associated with climate change. Arctic 57(4):389–400Google Scholar
  47. Ford J, MacDonald J, Smit B, Wandel J (2006a) Vulnerability to climate change in Igloolik, Nunavut: what we can learn from the past and present. Polar Rec 42(2):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ford J, Smit B, Wandel J (2006b) Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: a case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Glob Environ Change 16(2):145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ford J, Pearce T, Smit S, Wandel J, Allurut M, Shappa K, Ittusujurat H, Qrunnut K (2007) Reducing vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: the case of Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 60(2):150–166Google Scholar
  50. Ford J, Pearce T, Gilligan J, Smit B, Oakes J (2008a) Climate change and hazards associated with ice use in Northern Canada. Arctic Antarct Alp Res 40(4):647–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ford J, Smit B, Wandel J, Allurut M, Shappa K, Ittusarjuat H, Qrunnut K (2008b) Climate change in the Arctic: current and future vulnerability in two Inuit communities in Canada. Geogr J 174:45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ford J, Pearce T, Duerden F, Furgal C, Smit B (2010a) Climate change policy responses for Canada’s Inuit population: the importance of and opportunities for adaptation. Glob Environ Change 20(1):177–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ford J, Pearce T, Prno J, Duerden F, Berrang Ford L, Beaumier M, Smith T, Marshall D (2010b). Perceptions of climate change risks in primary resource use industries: A survey of the Canadian mining sector. Reg Environ Change 10:65–81Google Scholar
  54. Furgal C, Prowse T (2008) Northern Canada. In: Lemmen D, Warren F, Bush E, Lacroix J (eds) From impacts to adaptation: Canada in a changing climate 2007. Natural Resources Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  55. Furgal C, Seguin J (2006) Climate change, health, and vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal communities. Environ Health Perspectives 114(12):1964–1970Google Scholar
  56. Furgal C, Buell M, Chan L, Edge V, Martin D, Ogden N (2008) Health impacts of climate change in Canada’s north. In: Sequin J (ed) Human health in a changing climate: a Canadian assessment of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity. Health Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  57. Fussel H, Klein R (2006) Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Glob Environ Change 75(3):301–329Google Scholar
  58. Gearheard S, Matumeak W, Angutikjuaq I, Maslanik J, Huntington H, Leavitt J, Matumeak D, Tigullaraq G, Barry R (2006) “It’s not that simple”: comparison of sea ice environments, observed changes, and adaptations in Barrow Alaska, USA, and Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada. Ambio 35(4):203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. GNWT (2008a) NWT climate change impacts and adaptation report. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Yellowknife, Northwest TerritoriesGoogle Scholar
  60. GNWT (2008b) NWT Community Profiles. Available via. http://www.stats.gov.nt.ca/. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  61. Government of Canada (1984) The western arctic claim: the inuvialuit final agreementGoogle Scholar
  62. Graversen R, Mauritsen T, Tjernstrom M, Kallen E, Svensson G (2008) Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming. Nature 451(7174):53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gunn A, Shank C, McLean B (1991) The history, status and management of muskoxen on Banks Island. Arctic 44(3):188–195Google Scholar
  64. Hamlet of Tuktoyaktuk (1984) Community plan for the hamlet of tuktoyaktuk, N.W.TGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayley D (2004) Climate change: an adaptation challenge for northern engineers. Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoeve E, Zhou F, Zhang A (2006) Potential cost impacts for adaptation of building foundations in the Northwest Territories. EIC Clim Change Technol IEEE 1–9Google Scholar
  67. Hovelsrud G, McKenna M, Huntington H (2008) Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans. Ecol Appl 18(2):S135–S147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Huntington H (2009) A preliminary assessment of threats to arctic marine mammals and their conservation in the coming decades. Marine Policy 33(1):77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huntington H, Hamilton L, Nicholson C, Brunner R, Lynch A, Ogilvie A, Voinov A (2007) Toward understanding the human dimensions of the rapidly changing arctic system: insights and approaches from five HARC projects. Reg Environ Change 7:173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. IHS (2003) Inuvialuit harvester study: data and methods report, 1988–1997. Inuvialuit Joint Secretariat. Inuvik, Northwest TerritoriesGoogle Scholar
  71. Ip J (2007) We don’t live in igloos—Inuvik youth speak out. Can Fam Physician 53:864–870Google Scholar
  72. IPCC (2007a) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Working group II contribution to the intergovernmental panel on climate change fourth assessment report, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  73. IPCC (2007b) Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnson K, Solomon S, Berry D, Graham P (2003) Erosion progression and adaptation strategy in a northern coastal community. 8th International Conference on Permafrost, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  75. Julian P, Higgins T, Green S (eds) (2008) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, Version 5.0.1. Available via. http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  76. Kattsov V, Kallen E (2005) Future climate change: modeling and scenarios for the Arctic. In: Hassol S (ed) Arctic climate impact assessment scientific report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 99–150Google Scholar
  77. Keskitalo EC (2008) Climate change and globalization in the Arctic: an integrated approach to vulnerability assessment. Earthscan Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Kitchenham B (2004) Procedures for performing systematic reviews, joint technical report, Software Engineering Group, Department of Computer Science, Keele University, Eversleigh. Available via. http://www.idi.ntnu.no/emner/empse/papers/kitchenham_2004.pdf. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  79. Korhonen M (2004) Alcohol problems and approaches: theories, evidence and northern practice. Ajunnginiq Centre, National Aboriginal Health Oganization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  80. Krupnik I, Jolly D (eds) (2002) The Earth is faster now: indigenous observations of arctic environmental change. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  81. Krupnik I, Ray G (2007) Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 54(23–26):2946–2957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kruse J, White R, Epstein H, Archie B, Berman M, Braund S, Chapin F, Charlie J, Daniel C, Eamer J, Flanders N, Griffith B, Haley S, Huskey L, Joseph B, Klein D, Kofinas G, Martin S, Murphy S, Nebesky W, Nicolson C, Russell D, Tetlichi J, Tussing A, Walker M, Young O (2004) Modeling sustainability of arctic communities: an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers and local knowledge holders. Ecosystems 7(8):815–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kuhnlein H, Receveur O (2007) Local cultural animal food contributes high levels of nutrients for Arctic Canadian indigenous adults and children. J Nutr 137(4):1110–1114Google Scholar
  84. Laidler G, Ford J, Gough W, Ikummaq T, Gagnon A, Kowal S, Qrunnut K, Irngaut C (2009) Travelling and hunting in a changing Arctic: assessing Inuit vulnerability to sea ice change in Igloolik, Nunavut. Clim Change 94(3–4):363–397Google Scholar
  85. Larsen P, Goldsmith S, Smith O, Wilson M, Strzepek K, Chinowsky P, Saylor B (2008) Estimating future costs for Alaska public infrastructure at risk from climate change. Glob Environ Change 18(3):442–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Larter N, Nagy J (2001) Calf production, calf survival, and recruitment of Muskoxen on Banks Island during a period of changing population density from 1986–99. Arctic 54(4):394–406Google Scholar
  87. Lawrence D, Slater A, Tomas R, Holland M, Deser C (2008) Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss. Geophys Res Lett 35(11). doi:10.1029/2008gl033985
  88. Leake J, Jozzy S, Uswak G (2008) Severe dental caries, impacts and determinants among children 2–6 years of age in Inuvik Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. J Can Dent Assoc 74(6):519–519GGoogle Scholar
  89. Lemmen D, Warren F, Lacroix J, Bush E (eds) (2008) From impacts to adaptation: Canada in a changing climate 2007. Government of Canada, Ottawa, p 448Google Scholar
  90. Lonergan S, Difrancesco R, Woo M (1993) Climate change and transportation in Northern Canada—An integrated impact assessment. Clim Change 24(4):331–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Loring P, Gerlach S (2009) Food, culture, and human health in Alaska: an integrative health approach to food security. Environ Sci Policy 12(4):466–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lynch A, Brunner R (2007) Context and climate change: an integrated assessment for Barrow, Alaska. Clim Change 82(1–2):93–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Macdonald R, Harner T, Fyfe J (2005) Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data. Sci Total Environ 342(1–3):5–86Google Scholar
  94. Manson G, Solomon S (2007) Past and future forcing of Beaufort Sea coastal change. Atmosphere-Ocean 45(2):107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Manson G, Solomon S, Forbes D, Atkinson D, Craymer M (2005) Spatial variability of factors influencing coastal change in the Westen Canadian Arctic. Geo-Marine Lett 25(2–3):138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Marsh P, Lesack L (1996) The hydrologic regime of perched lakes in the Mackenzie delta: Potential responses to climate change. Limnol Oceanogr 41(5):849–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Martin D, Belanger D, Gosselin P, Brazeau J, Furgal C, Dery S (2007) Drinking water and potential threats to human health in Nunavik: adaptation strategies under climate change conditions. Arctic 60(2):195–202Google Scholar
  98. McCabe G, Clark M, Serreze M (2001) Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity. J Clim 14:2763–2768Google Scholar
  99. McGillivray D, Agnew T, McKay G, Pilkington G, Hill M (1993) Impacts of climatic change on the Beaufor y regime: implications for the arctic petroleum industry. Environment Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  100. McLeman R, Smit B (2005) Vulnerability to climate change hazards and risks: crop and flood insurance. Can Geogr 50(2):217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Milly P, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, Hirsch R, Kundzewicz Z, Lettenmaier D, Stouffer R (2008) Climate change: stationarity is dead: whither water management? Science 319(5863):573–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Moline M, Karnovsky N, Brown Z, Divoky G, Frazer T, Jacoby C, Torrese J, Fraser W (2008) High latitude changes in ice dynamics and their impact on polar marine ecosystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134(The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology): 267–319. doi:10.1196/annals.1439.010
  103. Myers H, Fast H, Berkes M, Berkes F (2005) Feeding the family in times of change. In: Berkes F, Fast H, Manseau M, Diduck A (eds) Breaking ice: renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian north. Univerity of Calgary Press, Calgary, pp 23–47Google Scholar
  104. Nagy J, Wright W, Slack T, Veitch A (2005) Seasonal ranges of the Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, and Bluenose-East barren-ground caribou herds. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife. Available via. http://www.srrb.nt.ca/registry/ENR/9%20Seasonal%20Ranges%20of%20CB%20BW%20BE%20Herds%20MR%20167.pdf. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  105. Newton J (1997) Coping with floods: an analogue for dealing with the transition to a modified climate in the northern sector of the Mackenzie basin. In: Cohen S (ed) Mackenzie basin impact study (MBIS). Atmospheric Environment Services, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, pp 219–224Google Scholar
  106. Nickels S, Furgal C, Castleden J, Moss-Davies P, Buell M, Armstrong B, Dillon D, Fonger R (2002) Putting the human face on climate change through community workshops: Inuit knowledge, partnerships, and research. In: Krupnik I, Jolly D (eds) The Earth is faster now: indigenous observations of arctic environmental change. Artic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, pp 301–333Google Scholar
  107. Nickels S, Furgal C, Buell M, Moquin H (eds) (2006) Unikkaaqatigiit—Putting the human face on climate change: perspectives from Inuit in Canada. Joint Publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Universite Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the Nataional Aboriginal Health Organization, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  108. Nuttall M, Berkes F, Forbes B, Kofinas G, Vlassova T, Wenzel G (2005) Hunting, herding, fishing and gathering: indigenous peoples and renewable resource use in the Arctic. In: Hassol S (ed) Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 650–690Google Scholar
  109. Overland J, Wang M (2007) Future regional Arctic sea ice declines. Geophys Res Lett 34:L17705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pearce T, Smit B, Duerden F, Katayoak F, Inuktalik R, Goose A, Ford J, Wandel J (2006) Travel routes, harvesting and climate change in Ulukhaktok, Canada. Northern Research Forum Open Meeting—the Borderless North, Oulu, Finland and Lulea, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  111. Pearce T, Ford J, Laidler G, Smit B, Duerden F, Allarut M, Andrachuk M, Baryluk S, Dialla A, Elee P, Goose A, Ikummaq T, Joamie E, Kataoyak F, Loring E, Meakin S, Nickels S, Shappa K, Shirley J, Wandel J (2009a) Community collaboration and environmental change research in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Res 28(1):10–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pearce T, Ford J, Prno J, Duerden F (2009b). Climate change impacts and adaptations in the Canadian mining sector. David Suzuki Foundation Climate change Program, Vancouver, p 159Google Scholar
  113. Pearce T, Smit B, Duerden D, Ford J, Goose A, Kataoyak F (2010) Inuit vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Polar Rec 46(237):157–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Perovich D, Richter-Menge J, Jones K, Light B (2008) Sunlight, water, and ice: extreme arctic sea ice melt during the summer of 2007. Geophys Res Lett 35(11):4. L11501Google Scholar
  115. Petticrew M, Roberts H (2006) Systematic reviews in the social sciences: a practical guide. Blackwell, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Polsky C, Neff R, Yarnal B (2007) Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: the vulnerability scoping diagram. Glob Environ Change 17(3–4):472–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Prowse T, Furgal C, Bonsal B, Edwards T (2009) Climatic conditions in northern Canada: past and future. Ambio 38(5):257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reimnitz E, Maurer D (1979) Effects of storm surges on the Beaufort Sea coast, northern Alaska. Arctic 32:329–344Google Scholar
  119. Riedlinger D (2001) Responding to climate change in northern communities: impacts and adaptations. Arctic 54(1):96–98Google Scholar
  120. Riedlinger D, Berkes F (2001) Contributions of traditional knowledge to understanding climate change in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Rec 37(203):315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Riewe R, Oakes J (eds) (2006) Climate change: linking traditional and scientific knowledge. Aboriginal Issues Press, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  122. Rinke A, Dethloff K (2008) Simulated circum-Arctic climate changes by the end of the 21st century. Glob Planet Change 62(1–2):173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schlag M, Fast M (2005) Marine stewardship and Canada’s oceans agenda in the western Canadian Arctic: a role for youth. In: Berkes F, Fast H, Manseau M, Diduck A (eds) Breaking ice: renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian north. Univerity of Calgary Press, Calgary, pp 119–141Google Scholar
  124. Schröter D, Polsky C, Patt A (2005) Assessing vulnerabilities to the effects of global change: an eight step approach. Mitigation Adapt Strateg Glob Change 10(4):573–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shaw J, Taylor R, Solomon S, Christian H, Forbes D (2008) Potential impacts of global sea level rise of Canadian coasts. Can Geogr 42(4):365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16(3):282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Solomon S (2002) Tuktoyaktuk erosion risk assessment, 2001. Report prepared for the Government of the North West Territories and EBA Engineering. Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic), Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth. Available via. http://nome.colorado.edu/HARC/members/Scanned_docs/Solomon_2001.pdf. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  128. Solomon S (2005) Spatial and temporal variability of shoreline change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region, northwest territories, Canada. Geo-Marine Lett 25(2–3):127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stroeve J, Serreze M, Drobot S, Gearheard S, Holland M, Maslanik J, Meier W, Scambos T (2008) Arctic sea ice extent plummets in 2007. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 89(2):13–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Turner B, Kasperson RE, Matson P, McCarthy J, Corell R, Christensen L, Eckley N, Kasperson JX, Luers A, Martello M, Polsky C, Pulsipher A, Schiller A (2003) A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(14):8074–8079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. UMA Engineering Ltd (1994) Tuktoyaktuk shoreline protection study, phases 2 and 3. Interim Report No. 2 Available via. http://nome.colorado.edu/HARC/members/Scanned_docs/UMAEngineering_1994.pdf. Accessed 27 Sept 2009
  132. Usher P (2000) Traditional ecological knowledge in environmental assessment and management. Arctic 53(2):183–193Google Scholar
  133. Usher P (2002) Inuvialuit use of the Beaufort Sea and its resources, 1960–2000. Arctic 55(Supp. 1):18–28Google Scholar
  134. Van Oostdam J, Donaldson S, Feeley M, Arnold D, Ayotte P, Bondy G, Chan L, Dewaily E, Furgal C, Kuhnlein H, Loring E, Muckle G, Myles E, Receveur O, Tracy B, Gill U, Kalhok S (2005) Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review. Sci Total Environ 351:165–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wein E, Freeman M (1992) Inuvialuit food use and food preferences in Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic Med Res 51:159–172Google Scholar
  136. White D, Gerlach S, Loring P, Tidwell A, Chambers M (2007) Food and water security in a changing arctic climate. Environ Res Lett October–December: 045018 (4 pp). doi:10.10898/1748-9326/2/4/045018
  137. Wolfe S, Kotler E, Nixon F (2000) Recent warming impacts in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, and northern Yukon Territory coastal areas. Current Research 2000-B1, Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa: 9Google Scholar
  138. Wolfe B, Armitage D, Wesche S, Brock B, Sokal M, Clogg-Wright K, Mongeon C, Adam M, Hall R, Edwards T (2007) From isotopes to TK interviews: towards interdisciplinary research in Fort Resolution and the Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories. Arctic 60(1):75–87Google Scholar
  139. Zhang Y, Chen W, Riseborough D (2008) Transient projections of permafrost distribution in Canada during the 21st century under scenarios of climate change. Glob Planetary Change 60(3–4):443–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhou F, Zhang A, Li R, Hoeve E (2009) Spatio-temporal simulation of permafrost geothermal response to climate change scenarios in a building environment. Cold Reg Sci Technol 56(2–3):141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tristan Pearce
    • 1
  • James D. Ford
    • 2
  • Frank Duerden
    • 3
  • Barry Smit
    • 1
  • Mark Andrachuk
    • 1
  • Lea Berrang-Ford
    • 2
  • Tanya Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of GeographyRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations