Advertisement

Migration aspirations among youth in the Middle East and North Africa region

  • Raul RamosEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The Middle East and North Africa region has high unemployment rates for youth, and the number of youth not in education, employment, or training is also among the highest in the world. In this context, migration is one of the more obvious reactions of youth facing unmet aspirations in the labour market. This paper analyses the determinants of the intentions of youth to migrate during their school-to-work transitions in selected countries in the region. With this aim, microdata from School-to-Work Transition Surveys conducted by the International Labour Organization from 2013 to 2015 are used in this research covering Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Tunisia. These surveys target a nationally representative sample of young people between the ages of 15 and 29 and include data on intentions to migrate (internal and international) and factors related to social and educational background. Microeconometric models are used in order to achieve a better understanding of factors influencing youth decisions to migrate.

Keywords

Intentions to migrate Youth NEETs Unemployment Inactivity School-to-work transition 

JEL Classification

F22 J61 J65 R23 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the ILO WORK4YOUTH (W4Y) team for sharing the microdata from the School-to-Work Transition Surveys (SWTS) and the support received from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the project ECO2016-75805-R.

Supplementary material

10109_2019_306_MOESM1_ESM.do (10 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DO 9 kb)
10109_2019_306_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 13 kb)

References

  1. Adserà A, Pytliková M (2015) The role of language in shaping international migration. Econ J 125(586):F49–F81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed M, Guillaume D, Furceri D (2012) Youth unemployment in the MENA region: determinants and challenges in addressing the 100 million youth challenge. Perspectives on youth employment in the Arab world in 2012, World Economic Forum, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer T, Epstein G, Gang I N (2000) What are migration networks. IZA DP No 200, BonnGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazillier R, Boboc C (2016) Labour migration as a way to escape from employment vulnerability? Evidence from the European Union. Appl Econ Lett 23(16):1149–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodvarsson ÖB, Simpson NB, Sparber C (2015) Migration theory. In: Chiswick BR, Miller PW (eds) Handbook of the economics of international migration. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 3–51Google Scholar
  6. Carcillo S, Fernández R, Königs S, Minea A (2015) NEET youth in the aftermath of the crisis: Challenges and policies. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 164, OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  7. Chamlou N, Karshenas M (eds) (2016) Women work and welfare in the Middle East and North Africa. The role of socio-demographics, entrepreneurship and public policies. Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Constant AF, Nottmeyer O, Zimmermann KF (2013) The Economics of circular migration. In: Constant AF, Zimmermann KF (eds) International handbook on the economics of migration. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 55–74Google Scholar
  9. Cummings C, Pacitto J, Lauro D, Foresti M (2015) Why people move: Understanding the drivers and trends of migration to Europe. ODI Working Paper 430, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. DaVanzo J (1981) Repeat migration, information costs, and location-specific capital. Popul Environ 4(1):45–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. David A, Jarreau J (2016) Determinants of emigration: Evidence from Egypt, Economic Research Forum (ERF) Working Paper 987, CairoGoogle Scholar
  12. de Grip A, Fouarge D, Sauermann J (2010) What affects international migration of European science and engineering graduates? Econ Innov New Technol 19(5):407–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Haas H (2011) The determinants of international migration. IMI Working Paper Series 32, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Dibeh G, Fakih A, Marrouch W (2018) Decision to emigrate amongst the youth in Lebanon. Int Migr 56(1):5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Docquier F, Lohest O, Marfouk A (2007) Brain drain in developing countries. World Bank Econ Rev 21(2):193–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Docquier F, Marfouk S, Salomone S, Sekkat K (2012) Are skilled women more migratory than skilled men. World Dev 40(2):251–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dustmann C, Görlach J-S (2016) The economics of temporary migrations. J Econ Lit 54(1):98–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elbadawy A (2011) Migration aspirations among young people in Egypt: Who desires to migrate? Economic Research Forum (ERF) Working Paper 619, CairoGoogle Scholar
  19. Esipova N, Ray J, Pugliese A (2011) Gallup world poll: the many faces of global migration. IOM Migration Research Series 43, Grand-SaconnexGoogle Scholar
  20. ETF (2015a) NEETs: An overview in ETF partner countries, ETF Report, TurinGoogle Scholar
  21. ETF (2015b) The challenge of youth employability in Arab Mediterranean countries: the role of active labour market programmes, ETF Report, TurinGoogle Scholar
  22. European Commission (2010) Labour markets performance and migration flows in Arab Mediterranean countries: determinants and effects. European Commission Occasional Paper 60, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibson J, McKenzie D (2011) The microeconomic determinants of emigration and return migration of the best and brightest: evidence from the Pacific. J Dev Econ 95(1):18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grogger J, Hanson GH (2011) Income maximization and the selection and sorting of international migrants. J Dev Econ 95(1):42–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hadler M (2006) Intentions to migrate within the European Union: a challenge for simple economic macro-level explanations. Eur Soc 8(1):111–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hunter RS, Oswald AJ, Charlton BG (2009) The elite brain drain. Econ J 119(538):F231–F251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ILO (2015) World employment and social outlook: the changing nature of jobs. ILO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  28. Kahanec M, Fabo B (2013) Migration strategies of the crisis-stricken youth in an enlarged European Union. Transfer 19(3):365–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lall S, Selod H, Shalizi Z (2006) Rural–urban migration in developing countries: a survey of theoretical predictions and empirical findings, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3915, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Manacorda M, Rosati FC, Ranzani M, Dachille G (2017) Pathways from school to work in the developing world. IZA J Labor Dev 6(1):1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McKenzie DJ (2007) A profile of the world’s young developing country migrants, IZA DP 2948, BonnGoogle Scholar
  32. Nieto S, Matano A, Ramos R (2015) Educational mismatches in the EU: immigrants vs. natives. Int J Manpower 36(4):540–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Higgins N (2017) Rising to the youth employment challenge: new evidence on key policy issues. International Labour Office, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  34. OECD (2016) International migration outlook 2016. OECD Publishing, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pastore F (2015) The youth experience gap: explaining national differences in the school-to-work transition. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pastore F (2017) TVET in developing countries through the second wave of the ILO SWTSs. Background Paper Prepared for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report, UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  37. Pastore F (2018) Why is youth unemployment so high and different across countries? IZA World Labor 2018(420):1–11Google Scholar
  38. Quintini G, Martin S (2014) Same but different: school-to-work transitions in emerging and advanced economies. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 154, OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramos R, Royuela V (2017) Graduate migration in Spain: the impact of the great recession on a low-mobility country. In: Corcoran J, Faggian A (eds) Graduate migration and regional development. Edwar Elgar Publishing, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramos R, Suriñach J (2017) A gravity model of migration between ENC and EU. Tijdschr Econ Soc Geogr 108(1):21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sanromá E, Ramos R, Simón H (2015) How relevant is the origin of human capital for immigrant wages? Evidence from Spain. J Appl Econ 18(1):149–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stark O, Bloom D (1985) The new economics of labour migration. Am Econ Rev 75(2):173–178Google Scholar
  43. UNESCO (2016) Global education monitoring report, education for people and planet: creating sustainable futures for all. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  44. Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) Ad hoc working group on job creation (2016) Outcome Document, Union for the Mediterranean, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  45. Van Mol C (2016) Migration aspirations of European youth in times of crisis. J Youth Stud 19(10):1303–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Williams AM, Jephcote C, Janta H, Li G (2018) The migration intentions of young adults in Europe: a comparative multilevel analysis. Popul Space Place 24(1):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AQR-IREAUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations