Brazilian spatial dynamics in the long term (1872–2000): “path dependency” or “reversal of fortune”?
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This paper analyzes the spatial dynamics of Brazilian regional inequalities between 1872 and 2000 using contemporary tools. The first part of the paper provides new estimates of income per capita in 1872 by municipality using census and electoral information on income by occupation. The level of analysis is the Minimum Comparable Areas 1872–2000 developed by Reis et al. (Áreas mínimas comparáveis para os períodos intercensitários de 1872 a 2000, 2007). These areas are the least aggregation of adjacent municipalities required to allow consistent geographic area comparisons between census years. In the second section of the paper, Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis, Markov chains and stochastic kernel techniques (spatially conditioned) are applied to the dataset. The results suggest that, in broad terms, the spatial pattern of income distribution in Brazil during that period of time has remained stable.