Journal of Geographical Systems

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 161–187 | Cite as

Multicollinearity and correlation among local regression coefficients in geographically weighted regression

  • David Wheeler
  • Michael Tiefelsdorf


Present methodological research on geographically weighted regression (GWR) focuses primarily on extensions of the basic GWR model, while ignoring well-established diagnostics tests commonly used in standard global regression analysis. This paper investigates multicollinearity issues surrounding the local GWR coefficients at a single location and the overall correlation between GWR coefficients associated with two different exogenous variables. Results indicate that the local regression coefficients are potentially collinear even if the underlying exogenous variables in the data generating process are uncorrelated. Based on these findings, applied GWR research should practice caution in substantively interpreting the spatial patterns of local GWR coefficients. An empirical disease-mapping example is used to motivate the GWR multicollinearity problem. Controlled experiments are performed to systematically explore coefficient dependency issues in GWR. These experiments specify global models that use eigenvectors from a spatial link matrix as exogenous variables.


Geographically weighted regression Multicollinearity Local regression diagnostics Spatial eigenvectors Experimental spatial design 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.School of Social SciencesUniversity of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA

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