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The effect of photobiomodulation therapy on nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled, single-blind, split-mouth clinical trial

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Abstract

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is a method currently used in the treatment of hard and soft tissue injuries due to its accelerating and enhancing effects on healing. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the possible additional benefits of applying PBMT with nonsurgical periodontal treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Twenty-two type 2 DM patients with CP were enrolled in this clinical split-mouth study. Probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured by intracaliber clinician (H.G.) at baseline and at 1 m, 3 m, and 6 m after treatment. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected at baseline and at 1 week and 1 m, 3 m, and 6 m after treatment. According to split-mouth design, one randomly selected quadrant was treated with PBMT + nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) and the other quadrant was treated only non-surgical periodontal treatment. PBMT was applied the test quadrant on NSPT day and first, third, and seventh day after treatment at an energy density of 7.64 J/cm2. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for the intragroup comparison and a “paired t test” in the intergroup comparison of the clinical and laboratory findings. Comparing the test and control quadrant after treatment, the test quadrant showed significant decrease in PPD at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months; in GI at 3 months and 6 months; in CAL at month 6; in GCF at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months; and in IL-1β data at 3 months in comparison to the control quadrant. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in PI data at all times. Within the limitation of this study, adjunct use of PBMT on NSPT in patient with DM may positively affect the clinical and biochemical parameters.

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Prof. Mehmet Tarakçıoğlu and Research Assistant Hasan Ulusal for their help with the gingival crevicular fluid cytokines analysis and thank Assoc. Prof. Seval Kul for her help with statistical analysis.

Funding

This study was supported by a grant from the Gaziantep University Research Foundation (number DHF.15.04), Gaziantep, Turkey.

Author information

Correspondence to Hasan GÜNDOĞAR.

Ethics declarations

This clinical trial was approved by local ethics committee of the University of Gaziantep (date 09.06.2014 per decision no 210), and all the participants were given information about the research, and oral and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. All procedures performed in the present study were in accordance with the Helsinki declaration.

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The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest in publishing this article.

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ÖZBERK, S.S., GÜNDOĞAR, H., ÖZKAYA, M. et al. The effect of photobiomodulation therapy on nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled, single-blind, split-mouth clinical trial. Lasers Med Sci 35, 497–504 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-019-02897-z

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Keywords

  • Photobiomodulation
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Chronic periodontitis
  • Cytokine
  • Non-surgical periodontal treatment