Advertisement

Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 1555–1566 | Cite as

Influence of radiant exposure and repetition rate in infrared neural stimulation with near-infrared lasers

  • Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari
  • Mohammad Ali AnsariEmail author
  • Mahdi Zakeri
  • Majid Haghjoo
Original Article

Abstract

In this study, we combine heat diffusion equation and modified Hodgkin-Huxley axonal model to investigate how an action potential is generated during infrared neural stimulation. The effects of temporal and spatial distribution of heat induced by infrared pulsed lasers on variation of electrical membrane capacitance are investigated. These variations can lead to depolarize the membrane and generate an action potential. We estimate the threshold values of laser light parameters such as energy density, pulse duration, and repetition rate are needed to trigger an action potential. In order to do it, we present an analytic solution to heat diffusion equation. Then, the analytic results are verified by experimental results. Furthermore, the modified Hodgkin-Huxley axonal model is applied to simulate the generation of action potential during infrared neural stimulation by taking into account the temperature dependence of electrical membrane capacitance. Results show that the threshold temperature increase induced by a train infrared pulse laser can be smaller if repetition rate is higher. These results also indicate that temperature rise time and axon diameter influence on threshold temperature increase. To verify threshold values estimated by the presented method, we use a train infrared pulsed laser (λ = 1450 nm with repetition rate of 3.8 Hz, pulse duration of 18 ms and energy density of 5 J/cm2) to optically pace an adult rat heart, and we are able to successfully pace the rat heart during an open-heart surgery. The presented method can be used to estimate threshold values of laser parameters required for generating an action potential, and it can provide an insight to how the temperature changes lead to neural stimulation during INS.

Keywords

Infrared neural stimulation Axon Heat diffusion equation Optical pacing 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Also, we would like very thank from Dr. Amir Darbandi-Azar, manager of experimental laboratory at Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, for helping us in animal model surgery.

Funding information

This study has been supported by grant number D/1687/600 from Shahid Beheshti University.

Compliance with ethical standards

This experimental study (including animal study) was approved by the ethic committee of Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10103_2019_2741_MOESM1_ESM.mov (7.6 mb)
ESM 1 (MOV 7790 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Wang J, Tian L, Lu J, Xia M, Wei Y (2016) Effect of shorter pulse duration in cochlear neural activation with an 810-nm near-infrared laser. Lasers Med Sci 32:389–396.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2129-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fribance S, Wang J, Roppolo JR, de Groat WC, Tai C (2016) Axonal model for temperature stimulation. J Comput Neurosci 41:185–192.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10827-016-0612-x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peterson EJ, Tyler DJ (2013) Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation. J Neural Eng 11:016001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhao K, Tan X, Young H, Richter CP (2016) Stimulation of neurons with infrared radiation. Biomedical optics in otorhinolaryngology. Springer, New York, pp 253–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tian L, Wang J, Wei Y, Lu J, Xu A, Xia M (2017) Short-wavelength infrared laser activates the auditory neurons: comparing the effect of 980 vs. 810 nm wavelength. Lasers Med Sci 32:357–362.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2123-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cayce JM, Friedman RM, Chen G, Jansen ED, Mahadevan-Jansen A, Roe AW (2014) Infrared neural stimulation of primary visual cortex in non-human primates. NeuroImage 84:181–190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.08.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang J, Xia M, Lu J, Li C, Tian X, Tian L (2015) Performance analysis of the beam shaping method on optical auditory neural stimulation in vivo. Lasers Med Sci 30:1533–1540.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-015-1763-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Izzo AD, Walsh JT, Jansen ED, Bendett M, Webb J, Ralph H, Richter CP (2007) Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 54:1108–1114.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2007.892925 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jenkins MW, Wang YT, Doughman YQ, Watanabe M, Cheng Y, Rollins AM (2013) Optical pacing of the adult rabbit heart. Biomed Opt Express 4:1626–1635.  https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.4.001626 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liljemalm R, Nyberg T, von Holst H (2013) Heating during infrared neural stimulation. Lasers Surg Med 45:469–481.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22158 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shapiro MG, Homma K, Villarreal S, Richter CP, Bezanilla F (2012) Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance. Nat Commun 3:736.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1742 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Norton BJ, Bowler MA, Wells JD, Keller MD (2013) Analytical approaches for determining heat distributions and thermal criteria for infrared neural stimulation. J Biomed Opt 18:098001.  https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.18.9.098001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wells J, Kao C, Konrad P, Milner T, Kim J, Mahadevan-Jansen A, Jansen ED (2007) Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve. Biophys J 93:2567–2580.  https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.107.104786 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duke AR, Jenkins MW, Lu H, McManus JM, Chiel HJ, Jansen ED (2013) Transient and selective suppression of neural activity with infrared light. Sci Rep 3:2600.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02600 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thompson AC, Wade SA, Pawsey NC, Stoddart PR (2013) Infrared neural stimulation: influence of stimulation site spacing and repetition rates on heating. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 60:3534–3541.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2013.2272796 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duke AR, Cayce JM, Malphrus JD, Konrad P, Mahadevan-Jansen A, Jansen ED (2009) Combined optical and electrical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo. J Biomed Opt 14:060501.  https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3257230 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thompson AC, Wade SA, Cadusch PJ, Brown WG, Stoddart PR (2013) Modeling of the temporal effects of heating during infrared neural stimulation. J Biomed Opt 18:035004.  https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.18.3.035004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson AC, Wade SA, Brown WG, Stoddart PR (2012) Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation. J Biomed Opt 17:075002.  https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.17.7.075002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bec JM, Albert ES, Marc I, Desmadryl G, Travo C, Muller A, Chabbert C, Bardin F, Dumas M (2012) Characteristics of laser stimulation by near infrared pulses of retinal and vestibular primary neurons. Lasers Surg Med 44:736–745.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22078 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Welch AJ, Van Gemert MJC (2011) Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Niemz M (2002) Laser-tissue interaction: fundamentals and applications. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Irvine WM, Pollack JB (1968) Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres. Icarus 8:324–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0019-1035(68)90083-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pauziene N, Pauza DH, Stropus R (2000) Morphology of human intracardiac nerves: an electron microscope study. J Anat 197:437–459.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19730437.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang YT, Rollins AM, Jenkins MW (2016) Infrared inhibition of embryonic hearts. J Biomed Opt 21:060505.  https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.21.6.060505 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular Intervention Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Optical Bio Imaging Laboratory (OBI lab)Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Cardiac Electrophysiology Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations