Spectroscopic study of breath ethylene via the mouth and nose
- 37 Downloads
The development of new techniques for breath analysis searching for objective biomarkers of oxidative stress showed promise in non-invasive disclosing health information of the well-being of a person. Although numerous biomarkers have been identified so far using breath analysis, very little is known about their origin if they are metabolic or providing from mouth contamination. For the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice, standardization of sample collection needs to be taken into account. Breath analysis has been performed using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to evaluate exhaled breath by mouth and nose before and after brushing with toothpaste/baking soda in order to identify the important endogenous biomarkers without contaminant sources. As a known biomarker of oxidative stress in the human body, it is important to accurately assess ethylene from exhaled air. Differences in the concentrations of exhaled ethylene are observed after using toothpaste and baking soda. The levels of ethylene are lower for nose breathing compared with mouth breathing. However, the differences are not significant proving that ethylene is generally endogenous but may still exist some contamination, depending of the oral hygiene of each person. These results may lead to a procedure, whereby subjects should be instructed to use toothpaste before each breath test sampling, to avoid the possibility of contamination of endogenous biomarkers.
KeywordsEthylene Biomarker Breath analysis Mouth/nose Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy
This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, RDI Program for Space Technology and Advanced Research—STAR, project number 153.
Compliance with ethical standards
For this research, I have the consent of the participants. The time and effort provided by the volunteers is greatly appreciated.
Conflict of interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
- 3.Schnabel R, Fijten R, Smolinska A, Dallinga J, Boumans M-L, Stobberingh E, Boots A, Roekaerts P, Bergmans D, van Schooten FJ (2015) Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia. Sci Rep 5: Article number 17179. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep17179
- 11.IARC ethylene (1994) IARC scientific publications no. 60. IARC, Lyon, pp 45–71Google Scholar
- 14.Törnqvist M (1989) Search for unknown adducts: increase of sensitivity through preselection by biochemical parameters. In: Bartsch H, Hemminki K, O'Neill IK (eds) Methods for detecting DNA damaging agents in humans: applications in cancer epidemiology and prevention. IARC Scientific Publications no. 89. IARC, Lyon, pp 378–383Google Scholar
- 15.Popa C, Bratu AM, Cernat R, Dutu DCA, Banita S, Dumitras DC (2011) Spectroscopic studies of ethylene and ammonia as biomarkers at patients with different medical disorders. U P B Sci Bull Ser A 73:167–174Google Scholar
- 16.Petrus M, Bratu AM, Popa C (2017) Spectroscopic analysis of breath ethylene and oxidative stress relation with glycaemic status in type 2 diabetes. Opt Quant Electron 49(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11082-016-0837-y
- 18.Dumitras DC, Dutu DC, Matei C, Magureanu AM, Petrus M, Popa C, Patachia M (2008) Measurements of ethylene concentrations by laser photoacoustic techniques with applications at breath analyses. Rom Rep Phys 60:593–602Google Scholar
- 19.Dumitras DC, Dutu DC, Matei C, Magureanu AM, Petrus M, Popa C (2007) Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy: principals, instrumentation and characterization. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 9:3655–3701Google Scholar
- 21.Petrus M, Bratu AM, Popa C (2016) The response of human body at oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabets: ammonia breath analysis by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. Rev Roum Chim 61(2):89–95Google Scholar
- 23.Cernat R, Matei C, Bratu AM, Dutu DC, Patachia M, Petrus M, Banita S, Dumitras DC (2010) Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy method for measurements of trace gas concentration from human breath. Rom Rep Phys 62:610–616Google Scholar
- 24.Bratu AM, Popa C, Matei C, Banita S, Dutu DCA, Dumitras DC (2011) Removal of interfering gases in breath biomarker measurements. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 13:1045–1050Google Scholar