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Twice-daily red and blue light treatment for Candida albicans biofilm matrix development control

  • Paula Ventura da Silveira
  • Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello
  • Cecília Atem Gonçalves de Araújo Costa
  • Shawn M. Maule
  • Shane M. Maule
  • Malvin N. Janal
  • Iriana Carla Junqueira Zanin
  • Simone Duarte
Original Article

Abstract

Phototherapy has been proposed as a direct means of affecting local bacterial infections. However, the use of phototherapy to prevent fungal biofilm development has received comparatively less attention. This study aimed to determine the effects of red light treatment and blue light treatment, without a photosensitizer, on the development of Candida albicans biofilm. During the development of 48-h biofilms of C. albicans SN 425 (n = 10), the biofilms were exposed twice-daily to noncoherent blue and red light (LumaCare; 420 nm and 635 nm). The energy density applied was 72 J cm−2 for blue light and 43.8 J cm2, 87.6 J cm2, and 175.5 J cm2 for red light. Positive control (PC) and negative control (NC) groups were treated twice-daily for 1 min with 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 0.89% NaCl respectively. Biofilms were analyzed for colony forming units (CFU), dry-weight, and exopolysaccharides (EPS-soluble and EPS-insoluble). Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (α = 0.05). Dry-weight was lower than NC (p < 0.001) and approached PC levels with both red and blue light treatments. CFU were also lower in groups exposed to blue light and higher durations of red light (p < 0.05). EPS-soluble and EPS-insoluble measures were variably reduced by these light exposures. In conclusion, twice-daily exposure to both blue and red lights affect the biofilm development and physiology of polysaccharide production and are potential mechanisms for the control of C. albicans biofilm matrix development.

Keywords

Candida albicans Biofilm Red light Blue light Phototherapy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Alexander D. Johnson, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCSF, for his generous donation of the strain used in this study.

Funding information

This research was supported by CAPES Foundation from whom the first author received a scholarship (CAPES 88881.062159̷ 2014-01 PVE̷ CAPES). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

The authors have attested that for this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Ventura da Silveira
    • 1
  • Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello
    • 2
  • Cecília Atem Gonçalves de Araújo Costa
    • 1
  • Shawn M. Maule
    • 3
  • Shane M. Maule
    • 3
  • Malvin N. Janal
    • 4
  • Iriana Carla Junqueira Zanin
    • 1
  • Simone Duarte
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Restorative DentistryFederal University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public HealthIndiana University, Purdue University Indianapolis, School of DentistryIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.New York University College of DentistryNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and Health PromotionNew York University College of DentistryNew YorkUSA

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