Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 33, Issue 8, pp 1781–1790 | Cite as

Effect of photobiomodulation therapy on oxidative stress markers of gastrocnemius muscle of diabetic rats subjected to high-intensity exercise

  • Marcelo Frigero
  • Solange Almeida dos Santos
  • Andrey Jorge Serra
  • Caroline dos Santos Monteiro Machado
  • Leslie Andrews Portes
  • Paulo José Ferreira Tucci
  • Flavio Silva
  • Ernesto Cesar Leal-Junior
  • Paulo de Tarso Camillo de CarvalhoEmail author
Original Article


This study aimed to determine whether photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in diabetic rats subjected to high-intensity exercise interferes with the expression of the oxidative stress marker in the gastrocnemius muscle. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were included in this study comprising 16 diabetic and eight control rats. The animals were allocated into three groups—control, diabetic fatigue, and diabetic PBMT fatigue groups. Diabetes was induced via the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). We subsequently assessed blood lactate levels and PBMT. The animals of the diabetic fatigue group PBMT were irradiated before the beginning of the exercises, with dose of 4 J and 808 nm, were submitted to treadmill running with speed and gradual slope until exhaustion, as observed by the maximum volume of oxygen and lactate level. The animals were euthanized and muscle tissue was removed for analysis of SOD markers, including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) reactive substances. CAT, SOD, and GPx activities were significantly higher in the diabetic PBMT fatigue group (p < 0.05) than in the diabetic fatigue group. Outcomes for the diabetic PBMT fatigue group were similar to those of the control group (p > 0.05), while their antioxidant enzymes were significantly higher than those of the diabetic fatigue group. PBMT mitigated the TBARS concentration (p > 0.05). PBMT may reduce oxidative stress and be an alternative method of maintaining physical fitness when subjects are unable to perform exercise. However, this finding requires further testing in clinical studies.


Type 1 diabetes Photobiomodulation therapy Oxidative stress High-intensity exercise 


Role of the funding source

This work was supported by grants from the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, grant number (2015/13677-4) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological (grant number 309065/2015-1).

Compliance with ethical standards

All experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian College for Animal Experimentation. The animals were handled in compliance with the national guidelines for the humane treatment of laboratory animals, and the UNINOVE Research Ethics Committee approved all experimental procedures (approval number CEUA-AN0035.2014).

Conflict of interest

No competing financial interests exist. Professor Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior receives research support from Multi Radiance Medical (Solon, OH-USA), a laser device manufacturer. Multi Radiance Medical had no role in the planning of this study, and the laser device used was not theirs. They had no influence on study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo Frigero
    • 1
  • Solange Almeida dos Santos
    • 2
  • Andrey Jorge Serra
    • 1
  • Caroline dos Santos Monteiro Machado
    • 2
  • Leslie Andrews Portes
    • 3
    • 4
  • Paulo José Ferreira Tucci
    • 3
  • Flavio Silva
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ernesto Cesar Leal-Junior
    • 2
  • Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author return OK on get
  1. 1.Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied Health SciencesUniversidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)Sao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation SciencesUniversidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)Sao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)Sao PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyAdventist University of São Paulo (UNASP)Sao PauloBrazil
  5. 5.CampinasBrazil

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