Influences of different lower cervical bone graft heights on the size of the intervertebral foramen: multiple planar dynamic measurements with laser scanning
- 184 Downloads
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influences of different bone graft heights on the size of the intervertebral foramen, which will help determine the optimal graft height in clinical practice. Six fresh adult cadavers were used, with the C5-C6 vertebral column segment defined as the functional spinal unit (FSU). After discectomy, the C5/6 intervertebral height was set as the baseline height (normal disc height). We initially used spiral computed tomography (CT) to scan and measure the middle area of the intervertebral foramen when at the baseline height. Data regarding the spatial relationship of C5-C6 were subsequently collected with a laser scanner. Grafting with four different sized grafts, namely, grafts of 100, 130, 160, and 190% of the baseline height, was implanted. Moreover, we scanned to display the FSU in the four different states using Geomagic8.0 studio software. Multiple planar dynamic measurements (MPDM) were adopted to measure the intervertebral foramen volume, middle area, and areas of internal and external opening. MPDM with a laser scanner precisely measured the middle area of the intervertebral foramen as spiral CT, and it is easy to simulate the different grafts implanted. With the increase of the bone graft height, the size of the intervertebral foramen began to decrease after it increased to a certain point, when grafts of 160% of the baseline height implanted. MPDM of the intervertebral foramens with laser scanning three-dimensional (3D) reconstitution are relatively objective and accurate. The recommended optimal graft height of cervical spondylosis is 160% of the mean height of adjacent normal intervertebral spaces.
KeywordsLaser scanning 3D reconstruction Multiple planar dynamic measurements Cervical spondylosis Lower cervical spine Intervertebral foramen Bone graft height
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81472102, U1301223) and the National Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (grant number 2015A030313085). The funders had no role in the study design, experiment conduction and data analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The procedure was approved by the Institutional Human Investigation Committee of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Statement of informed consent
This study was performed on cadaver specimens; thus, “Informed Consent” was not applicable.
- 1.Wang LY, Chen DY, Guo YF, Xu JW, Wang XW (2004) Efffect of the anterior column height of cervical spondylotic myelopathy on the functional improvement rate by anterior decompression and interbody fusion. Chin J Clin Rehabil 8:201–203Google Scholar
- 4.Li Q, Li B, Chen J (2001) Research on laser range scanning and its application. Geo Spat Inf Sci 4:37–42Google Scholar
- 9.Araki D, Kuroda R, Matsumoto T, Nagamune K, Matsushita T, Kubo S, Oniki Y, Kurosaka M (2013) An analysis of surface profile for cylindrical osteochondral grafts of the knee quantitative evaluation using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 21:1794–1800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Lestini WF, Wiesel SW (1989) The pathogenesis of cervical spondylosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 239:69–93Google Scholar
- 15.Humphreys SC, Hodges SD, Patwardhan A, Eck JC, Covington LA, Sartori M (1998) The natural history of the cervical foramen in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals aged 20-60 years as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A descriptive approach. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 23:2180–2184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Rothman RH, Simenone FA (1992) Anterior cervical fusion. In: Rothman R, Simeone F (eds) The spine, 3rd edn. WB Saunders, PhiladalphiaGoogle Scholar
- 23.Brower RS, Herkowitz HN, Kurz L (1992) Effect of distraction on union rates of Smith-Robinson type anterior discectomy and fusion. 20th annual meeting of the Cervical Spine Research Society, Palm DesertGoogle Scholar
- 25.Cao SF, Jia LS, Kong QY, Zhao WD, Ouyang J, Zhong SZ (2003) An investigation of immediate biomechanical stability of lower cervical spine after subtotal corpectomy with distraction and grafting. J Clin Orthop 6:193–196Google Scholar