Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1009–1016 | Cite as

Interstitial PDT using diffuser fiber—investigation in phantom and in vivo models

  • Mirian D. StringasciEmail author
  • Thereza C. Fortunato
  • Lilian T. Moriyama
  • José Dirceu Vollet Filho
  • Vanderlei S. Bagnato
  • Cristina Kurachi
Original Article


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for local treatment of several types of tumors. Light penetration of biological tissue is one limiting factor in PDT, decreasing the success rates of the treatment of invasive and solid tumors. In those cases, a possible solution is to use interstitial PDT, in which both diffuser optical fibers are inserted into the tumor. The uniformity of the diffuser emission plays a crucial role in planning the delivery of the appropriate light fluence and in ensuring treatment success. In this study, we characterized a diffuser optical fiber concerning its homogeneity. We showed that the diffuser emission can be inhomogeneous and that the necrosis generated by interstitial PDT using such a diffuser for illumination is asymmetrical in volume as a result. This observation has relevant consequences in achieving success in PDT and phototherapies in general, as the delivered light fluence depends on adequate previous knowledge of the irradiation profile.


Photodynamic therapy Interstitial iPDT Diffuser optical fiber Heterogeneous irradiation profile 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Role of funding source

The authors thank the Brazilian funding agencies FAPESP, CAPES, and CNPq for the financial support (scholarships and facility infrastructure).

Ethical approval

All animal procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Use of the Federal University of Sao Carlos (Approval number 009/2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirian D. Stringasci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thereza C. Fortunato
    • 1
  • Lilian T. Moriyama
    • 1
  • José Dirceu Vollet Filho
    • 1
  • Vanderlei S. Bagnato
    • 1
  • Cristina Kurachi
    • 1
  1. 1.Sao Carlos Institute of PhysicsUniversity of São PauloSão CarlosBrazil

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