Interstitial PDT using diffuser fiber—investigation in phantom and in vivo models
- 267 Downloads
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for local treatment of several types of tumors. Light penetration of biological tissue is one limiting factor in PDT, decreasing the success rates of the treatment of invasive and solid tumors. In those cases, a possible solution is to use interstitial PDT, in which both diffuser optical fibers are inserted into the tumor. The uniformity of the diffuser emission plays a crucial role in planning the delivery of the appropriate light fluence and in ensuring treatment success. In this study, we characterized a diffuser optical fiber concerning its homogeneity. We showed that the diffuser emission can be inhomogeneous and that the necrosis generated by interstitial PDT using such a diffuser for illumination is asymmetrical in volume as a result. This observation has relevant consequences in achieving success in PDT and phototherapies in general, as the delivered light fluence depends on adequate previous knowledge of the irradiation profile.
KeywordsPhotodynamic therapy Interstitial iPDT Diffuser optical fiber Heterogeneous irradiation profile
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Role of funding source
The authors thank the Brazilian funding agencies FAPESP, CAPES, and CNPq for the financial support (scholarships and facility infrastructure).
All animal procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Use of the Federal University of Sao Carlos (Approval number 009/2012).
- 1.Small IV W, Buckley PR, Wilson TS, et al (2007) Fabrication and characterization of cylindrical light diffusers comprised of shape memory polymer.Google Scholar
- 2.Henderson BW, Gollnick SO (2003) Mechanistic principles of photodynamic therapy. In: Vo-Dinh T (ed) Biomed. Photonics handbook. pp 978–1004Google Scholar
- 4.Arnfield MR, Tulip J, Chetner M, McPhee MS Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy. Med Phys 16:602–608. doi: 10.1118/1.596361
- 5.Murrer LHP, Marijnissen JPA, Star WM (1995) Ex vivo light dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulations for endobronchial photodynamic therapy 40:1807–1817.Google Scholar
- 6.Amdur RJ, Hara JO, Ph D, et al (1997) Tissue dosimetry of 632 nm light delivered through brachytherapy needles. 286:281–286.Google Scholar
- 7.Chang S, Buonaccorsi GA, Macrobert AJ, Bown SG (1997) Interstitial photodynamic therapy in the canine prostate with disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX. 98:89–98.Google Scholar
- 8.Marijnissen JPA, Kort WJ, Zondervan PE, et al. (1992) Interstitial photodynamic therapy in a rat liver metastasis model 1014:1005–1014.Google Scholar
- 9.Lowdell CP, Ash D V (1993) Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours. 1398–1403.Google Scholar
- 10.Martin NE, Hahn SM (2004) Interstitial photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer: a developing modality. doi: 10.1016/S1572-1000(04)00037-7
- 11.Svanberg K, Bendsoe N, Axelsson J, et al. (2010) Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial 15:1–10. doi: 10.1117/1.3466579
- 12.Ishimaru A (1989) Diffusion of light in turbid material 28:Google Scholar
- 14.Liebert MA, Melo CAS, Lima ALLA, et al (2001) Characterization of light penetration in rat tissues 19:175–179.Google Scholar
- 15.Wilson BC, Jacques SL (1990) Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications 26:Google Scholar
- 16.Wilson BC, Patterson MS (1986) The physics of photodynamic therapy 31:327–360.Google Scholar
- 19.Melo CAS, Kurachi C, Grecco C, Sibata CH (2004) Pharmacokinetics of photogem using fluorescence monitoring in Wistar rats 73:183–188. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2003.11.005
- 20.Ferreira J, Moriyama LT, Kurachi C, et al (2007) Experimental determination of threshold dose in photodynamic therapy in normal rat liver. 475:469–475. doi: 10.1002/lapl.200710014
- 26.Hasselgren L, Galt S, Hard S (1990) Diffusive optical fiber ends for photodynamic therapy: manufacture and analysis 29:4481–4488.Google Scholar
- 29.Johansson A, Bendsoe N, Svanberg K, et al (2006) Influence of treatment-induced changes in tissue absorption on treatment volume during interstitial photodynamic therapy. D:261–270. doi: 10.1016/j.mla.2006.08.002
- 30.Bargo PR, Koval G, Blair G (2005) In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy 10:1–15. doi: 10.1117/1.1921907
- 31.Potter WR, Wood L, Purcell E (1990) Factors effecting the light distributions of cylindrical diffusers 1201:292–297.Google Scholar
- 32.Parsa P, Jacques SL, Nishioka NS (1989) Optical properties of rat liver between 350 and 2200 nm. 28:Google Scholar