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Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 1925–1933 | Cite as

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and/or cryotherapy in skeletal muscle restitution, what is better? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

  • Paulo Roberto Vicente de Paiva
  • Shaiane Silva Tomazoni
  • Douglas Scott Johnson
  • Adriane Aver Vanin
  • Gianna Móes Albuquerque-Pontes
  • Caroline dos Santos Monteiro Machado
  • Heliodora Leão Casalechi
  • Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
  • Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-JuniorEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Cryotherapy for post-exercise recovery remains widely used despite the lack of quality evidence. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) studies (with both low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) have demonstrated positive scientific evidence to suggest its use. The study aims to evaluate PBMT and cryotherapy as a single or combined treatment on skeletal muscle recovery after eccentric contractions of knee extensors. Fifty healthy male volunteers were recruited and randomized into five groups (PBMT, cryotherapy, cryotherapy + PBMT, PMBT + cryotherapy, or placebo) for a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated exercise performance (maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK)). Assessments were performed at baseline; immediately after; and at 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Comparator treatments was performed 3 min after exercise and repeated at 24, 48, and 72 h. PBMT was applied employing a cordless, portable GameDay device (combination of 905 nm super-pulsed laser and 875- and 640-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs); manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical, Solon - OH, USA), and cryotherapy by flexible rubber ice packs. PBMT alone was optimal for post-exercise recovery with improved MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p < 0.05) from 24 to 96 h compared to placebo, cryotherapy, and cryotherapy + PBMT. In the PBMT + cryotherapy group, the effect of PBMT was decreased (p > 0.05) but demonstrated significant improvement in MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p < 0.05). Cryotherapy as single treatment and cryotherapy + PBMT were similar to placebo (p > 0.05). We conclude that PBMT used as single treatment is the best modality for enhancement of post-exercise restitution, leading to complete recovery to baseline levels from 24 h after high-intensity eccentric contractions.

Keywords

Phototherapy Low-level laser therapy Light-emitting diodes Performance Exercise recovery 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

Professor Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior would like to thank Sao Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP (grant number 2010/52404-0) and Brazilian Council for Science and Technology Development—CNPq (grant numbers 472062/2013-1 and 307717/2014-3). Paulo Roberto Vicente de Paiva would like to thank Sao Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP master degree scholarship (grant number 2014/04557-2).

Competing interests

Professor Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior receives research support from Multi Radiance Medical (Solon, OH, USA), a laser device manufacturer. Douglas Scott Johnson is an employee and shareholder of Multi Radiance Medical (Solon, OH, USA). The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paulo Roberto Vicente de Paiva
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shaiane Silva Tomazoni
    • 3
  • Douglas Scott Johnson
    • 4
  • Adriane Aver Vanin
    • 1
    • 5
  • Gianna Móes Albuquerque-Pontes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Caroline dos Santos Monteiro Machado
    • 1
  • Heliodora Leão Casalechi
    • 1
  • Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Phototherapy in Sports and ExerciseUniversidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health SciencesUniversidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Multi Radiance MedicalSolonUSA
  5. 5.Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation SciencesUniversidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)São PauloBrazil

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