Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 1143–1149 | Cite as

Towards the intra-operative use of Raman spectroscopy in breast cancer—overcoming the effects of theatre lighting

  • Jonathan D. Horsnell
  • Catherine Kendall
  • Nicholas Stone
Original Article


The ability to use Raman spectroscopy to assess tissue in the operative theatre setting could be advantageous for both patients and clinicians. In this study, a method of overcoming the deleterious effects of theatre lighting on the Raman spectra is demonstrated. The effectiveness of this technique is highlighted both within the theatre setting and using human lymph node tissue. The portable MiniRam II Raman spectroscopy device that incorporated a 785-nm laser was used in all experiments. This is an important step towards the use of Raman spectroscopy as a means of analysing sentinel lymph nodes in patients who have been newly diagnosed with breast cancer.


Raman spectroscopy Breast cancer Lymph node Sentinel lymph node 


Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical submission

JH and NS received funding from the BUPA Foundation (TBF-M09-046) for this research.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan D. Horsnell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Catherine Kendall
    • 2
  • Nicholas Stone
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Breast SurgeryGloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustCheltenhamUK
  2. 2.Department of Biophotonics ResearchGloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustGloucesterUK
  3. 3.Department of Physics and AstronomyExeter UniversityExeterUK

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