Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 165–177 | Cite as

Effect of low-level phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Fernando Kenji Nampo
  • Vinícius Cavalheri
  • Solange de Paula Ramos
  • Enilton Aparecido Camargo
Review Article

Abstract

To determine the effectiveness of low-level phototherapy (i.e. light-emitting diode therapy [LEDtherapy] or light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation therapy [LASERtherapy]) on pain, skeletal muscle injury (creatine kinase [CK] levels and edema) and skeletal muscle function (range of movement and strength) in people undergoing an exercise protocol. (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, SciELO and LILACS up to May 2014), we included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials and crossover studies in which study participants were allocated to receive either low-level phototherapy or placebo treatment. Phototherapy should have been applied in a single treatment session, either before or after an exercise protocol. We identified 15 studies involving 317 participants. Meta-analyses were limited by substantial heterogeneity. Compared to the placebo group, reduction in CK levels was only observed when LASERtherapy was applied before an exercise protocol (standardized mean difference = −0.66; 95 % CI = -1.30, −0.02). No between-group difference in edema, range of movement and strength were detected when phototherapy was applied before or after exercise. Evidence from this review suggests that low-level phototherapy may not have substantial effect in the treatment of skeletal muscle injury and pain caused by exercise. Definitive conclusions are limited due to the small number of included studies in each meta-analysis, disparities across the included studies and small sample sizes.

Keywords

Low-level laser therapy Phototherapy Skeletal muscle Muscle soreness Exercise 

References

  1. 1.
    Lewis PB, Ruby D, Bush-Joseph CA (2012) Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clin Sports Med 31:255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choi SJ (2014) Cellular mechanism of eccentric-induced muscle injury and its relationship with sarcomere heterogeneity. J Exerc Rehabil 10:200–204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hyldahl RD, Hubal MJ (2014) Lengthening our perspective: morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to eccentric exercise. Muscle Nerve 49:155–170. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030935
  4. 4.
    MacIntyre DL, Reid WD, McKenzie DC (1995) Delayed muscle soreness. The inflammatory response to muscle injury and its clinical implications. Sports Med (Auckland, NZ) 20:24–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA). HistoFINA: Swimming medalists and statistics at Olympic Games (2013) November 16th 2014. Available from: http://www.fina.org/sites/default/files/HistoFINA_SWOG_1.pdf.
  6. 6.
    Mailloux J, Finno M, Rainville J (2006) Long-term exercise adherence in the elderly with chronic low back pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 85:120–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cheung K, Hume P, Maxwell L (2003) Delayed onset muscle soreness: treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Med (Auckland, NZ) 33:145–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hubscher M, Vogt L, Bernhorster M, Rosenhagen A, Banzer W (2008) Effects of acupuncture on symptoms and muscle function in delayed-onset muscle soreness. J Altern Complement Med 14:1011–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Antonialli FC, De Marchi T, Tomazoni SS, Vanin AA, dos Santos Grandinetti V, de Paiva PRV, et al. (2014) Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: effect of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes. Lasers Med Sci 29(6):1967–76Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    da Costa Santos VB, de Paula RS, Milanez VF, Corrêa JCM, de Andrade Alves RI, Dias IFL, Nakamura FY (2013) LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects. Lasers Med Sci 29:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wong-Riley MT, Liang HL, Eells JT, Chance B, Henry MM, Buchmann E, Kane M, Whelan HT (2005) Photobiomodulation directly benefits primary neurons functionally inactivated by toxins: role of cytochrome c oxidase. J Biol Chem 280:4761–4771. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15557336
  12. 12.
    Liang HL, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Wong-Riley MT (2008) Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment is therapeutic against rotenone- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity. Neuroscience 153:963–974. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18440709
  13. 13.
    Vinck E, Coorevits P, Cagnie B, De Muynck M, Vanderstraeten G, Cambier D (2005) Evidence of changes in sural nerve conduction mediated by light emitting diode irradiation. Lasers Med Sci 20:35–40. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15895289
  14. 14.
    Hsieh YL, Hong CZ, Chou LW, Yang SA, Yang CC (2014) Fluence-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy in myofascial trigger spots on modulation of biochemicals associated with pain in a rabbit model. Lasers Med Sci . Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190639
  15. 15.
    Cidral-Filho FJ, Martins DF, More AO, Mazzardo-Martins L, Silva MD, Cargnin-Ferreira E, Santos AR (2013) Light-emitting diode therapy induces analgesia and decreases spinal cord and sciatic nerve tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels after sciatic nerve crush in mice. Eur J Pain 17:1193–1204. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23339021
  16. 16.
    Higgins JPT, Green S (eds) (2011) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration. Available from http://www.cochrane-handbook.org
  17. 17.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 339:b2535. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622551
  18. 18.
    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR (2009) Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Wiley, Sussex, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baroni BM, Leal Junior EC, Geremia JM, Diefenthaeler F, Vaz MA (2010) Effect of light-emitting diodes therapy (LEDT) on knee extensor muscle fatigue. Photomed Laser Surg 28:653–658. doi:10.1089/pho.2009.2688 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Denis R, O'Brien C, Delahunt E (2013) The effects of light emitting diode therapy following high intensity exercise. Phys Ther Sport : Off J Assoc Chart Physiother Sports Med 14:110–115. Available at http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1466853X12000284/1-s2.0-S1466853X12000284-main.pdf?_tid=ed34a9f4-b35b-11e3-900e-00000aacb361&acdnat=1395669495_9020b32aa1658ca376b75e27d459a0be
  21. 21.
    Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Dalan F, Ferrari M, Sbabo FM, Generosi RA, Baroni BM, Penna SC, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM (2008) Effect of 655-nm low-level laser therapy on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in humans. Photomed Laser Surg 26:419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Vanin AA, Baroni BM, Grosselli D, De Marchi T, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM (2009) Effect of 830 nm low-level laser therapy in exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in humans. Lasers Med Sci 24:425–431. Available at http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/376/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10103-008-0592-9.pdf?auth66=1395842299_5773ad9ff7fc967ec190e850e65a1105&ext=.pdf
  23. 23.
    Miranda EF, Leal-Junior EC, Marchetti PH, Dal Corso S (2014) Acute effects of light emitting diodes therapy (LEDT) in muscle function during isometric exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. Lasers Med Sci 29:359–365. Available at http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/930/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10103-013-1359-5.pdf?auth66=1395842368_cec95eafe43913c03072391f2edbff80&ext=.pdf
  24. 24.
    Toma RL, Tucci HT, Antunes HK, Pedroni CR, de Oliveira AS, Buck I, Ferreira PD, Vassao PG, Renno AC (2013) Effect of 808 nm low-level laser therapy in exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in elderly women. Lasers Med Sci 28:1375–1382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Higashi RH, Toma RL, Tucci HT, Pedroni CR, Ferreira PD, Baldini G, Aveiro MC, Borghi-Silva A, de Oliveira AS, Renno AC (2013) Effects of low-level laser therapy on biceps braquialis muscle fatigue in young women. Photomed Laser Surg 31:586–594. doi:10.1089/pho.2012.3388 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parr JJ, Larkin KA, Borsa PA (2010) Effects of class IV laser therapy on exercise-induced muscle injury. Athl Train Sports Health Care 2(6):267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Borges LS, Cerqueira MS, Dos Santos Rocha JA, Conrado LA, Machado M, Pereira R, Neto OP (2014) Light-emitting diode phototherapy improves muscle recovery after a damaging exercise. Lasers Med Sci 29:1139–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Craig JA, Barlas P, Baxter GD, Walsh DM, Allen JM (1996) Delayed-onset muscle soreness: lack of effect of combined phototherapy/low-intensity laser therapy at low pulse repetition rates. J Clin Laser Med Surg 14(6):375–380. doi: 10.1089/clm.1996.14.375. Available at http://www.cebp.nl/vault_public/filesystem/?ID=2506; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9467328; http://www.liebertonline.com/pho
  29. 29.
    Craig JA, Barron J, Walsh DM, Baxter GD (1999) Lack of effect of combined low intensity laser therapy/phototherapy (CLILT) on delayed onset muscle soreness in humans. Lasers Surg Med 24:223–230. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9101(1999)24:3<223::AID-LSM7>3.0.CO;2-Y/asset/7_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=ht5tg7cz&s=a8a46267c04b298aea74e0d8534e602632a1ae56 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dos Reis FA, da Silva BA, Laraia EM, de Melo RM, Silva PH, Leal-Junior EC, de Carvalho Pde T (2014) Effects of pre- or post-exercise low-level laser therapy (830 nm) on skeletal muscle fatigue and biochemical markers of recovery in humans: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Photomed Laser Surg 32:106–112. doi:10.1089/pho.2013.3617 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Douris P, Southard V, Ferrigi R, Grauer J, Katz D, Nascimento C, Podbielski P (2006) Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 24(3):377–382. doi: 10.1089/pho.2006.24.377. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16875447; http://www.liebertonline.com/pho
  32. 32.
    Felismino AS, Costa EC, Aoki MS, Ferraresi C, de Araujo Moura Lemos TM, de Brito Vieira WH (2014) Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on markers of muscle damage: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lasers Med Sci 29:933–938. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24005882
  33. 33.
    Baroni BM, Leal Junior EC, De Marchi T, Lopes AL, Salvador M, Vaz MA (2010) Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 110:789–796. Available at http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/626/art%253A10.1007%252Fs00421-010-1562-z.pdf?auth66=1395841948_5fc24232ad5602b12f8893fd39f77980&ext=.pdf
  34. 34.
    De Marchi T, Leal Junior EC, Bortoli C, Tomazoni SS, Lopes-Martins RA, Salvador M (2012) Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in human progressive-intensity running: effects on exercise performance, skeletal muscle status, and oxidative stress. Lasers Med Sci 27:231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leal Junior EC, de Godoi V, Mancalossi JL, Rossi RP, De Marchi T, Parente M, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, Basso M, Frigo L, Tomazoni SS, Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA (2011) Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes—preliminary results. Lasers Med Sci 26:493–501. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3119799/pdf/10103_2010_Article_866.pdf
  36. 36.
    Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Baroni BM, De Marchi T, Rossi RP, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, de Godoi V, Basso M, Mancalossi JL, Bjordal JM (2009) Comparison between single-diode low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and LED multi-diode (cluster) therapy (LEDT) applications before high-intensity exercise. Photomed Laser Surg 27:617–623. doi:10.1089/pho.2008.2350 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Baroni BM, De Marchi T, Taufer D, Manfro DS, Rech M, Danna V, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, Marcos RL, Ramos L, Bjordal JM (2009) Effect of 830 nm low-level laser therapy applied before high-intensity exercises on skeletal muscle recovery in athletes. Lasers Med Sci 24:857–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Frigo L, De Marchi T, Rossi RP, de Godoi V, Tomazoni SS, Silva DP, Basso M, Filho PL, de Valls CF, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM (2010) Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to postexercise recovery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 40:524–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Rossi RP, De Marchi T, Baroni BM, de Godoi V, Marcos RL, Ramos L, Bjordal JM (2009) Effect of cluster multi-diode light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and skeletal muscle recovery in humans. Lasers Surg Med 41:572–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    de Almeida P, Lopes-Martins RA, De Marchi T, Tomazoni SS, Albertini R, Correa JC, Rossi RP, Machado GP, da Silva DP, Bjordal JM, Leal Junior EC (2012) Red (660 nm) and infrared (830 nm) low-level laser therapy in skeletal muscle fatigue in humans: what is better? Lasers Med Sci 27:453–458PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maciel TdS, Silva Jd, Jorge FS, Nicolau RA (2013) The influence of the 830 nm laser on the jump performance of female volleyball athletes. [A influência do laser 830 nm no desempenho do salto de atletas de voleibol feminino]. Rev Bras Eng Bioméd :199–205. Available at http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-31512013000200010&lang=pt
  42. 42.
    Leal-Junior EC, Vanin AA, Miranda EF, de Carvalho PD, Dal Corso S, Bjordal JM (2013) Effect of phototherapy (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) on exercise performance and markers of exercise recovery: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Lasers Med Sci. Available at http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/397/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10103-013-1465-4.pdf?auth66=1395842312_8495c08f38670da14c325fc84d145561&ext=.pdf
  43. 43.
    Borsa PA, Larkin KA, True JM (2013) Does phototherapy enhance skeletal muscle contractile function and postexercise recovery? A systematic review. J Athl Train 48:57–67. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3554033/pdf/i1062-6050-48-1-57.pdf
  44. 44.
    Dall Agnol MA, Nicolau RA, de Lima CJ, Munin E (2009) Comparative analysis of coherent light action (laser) versus non-coherent light (light-emitting diode) for tissue repair in diabetic rats. Lasers Med Sci 24:909–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kelencz CA, Munoz IS, Amorim CF, Nicolau RA (2010) Effect of low-power gallium-aluminum-arsenium noncoherent light (640nm) on muscle activity: a clinical study. Photomed Laser Surg 28:647–652. Available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/994/CN-00782994/frame.html
  46. 46.
    Overgaard K, Lindstrom T, Ingemann-Hansen T, Clausen T (2002) Membrane leakage and increased content of Na + −K+ pumps and Ca2+ in human muscle after a 100-km run. J Appl Physiol 92:1891–1898. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11960939 http://jap.physiology.org/content/92/5/1891.full.pdf
  47. 47.
    Fredsted A, Gissel H, Madsen K, Clausen T (2007) Causes of excitation-induced muscle cell damage in isometric contractions: mechanical stress or calcium overload? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R2249–R2258. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17332163 http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/292/6/R2249.full.pdf
  48. 48.
    Jones DA, Newham DJ, Clarkson PM (1987) Skeletal muscle stiffness and pain following eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Pain 30:233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Kenji Nampo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vinícius Cavalheri
    • 4
  • Solange de Paula Ramos
    • 5
  • Enilton Aparecido Camargo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversidade Federal de SergipeSão CristóvãoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physical TherapyUniversidade Federal de SergipeLagartoBrazil
  3. 3.Latin American Institute of Life and Natural SciencesUniversidade Federal da Integração Latino-AmericanaFoz do IguaçuBrazil
  4. 4.School of Physiotherapy and Exercise ScienceCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  5. 5.Department of HistologyUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations