Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 1281–1287 | Cite as

Light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) before matches prevents increase in creatine kinase with a light dose response in volleyball players

  • Cleber FerraresiEmail author
  • Ricardo Vinicius dos Santos
  • Guilherme Marques
  • Marcelo Zangrande
  • Roberley Leonaldo
  • Michael R. Hamblin
  • Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
  • Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Original Article


Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied over skeletal muscles before intense exercise (muscular pre-conditioning) in order to reduce fatigue and muscle damage (measured by creatine kinase, CK) in clinical trials. However, previous exercise protocols do not exactly simulate the real muscle demand required in sports. For this reason, the aim of this randomized and double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to investigate whether light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) applied over the quadriceps femoris muscles, hamstrings, and triceps surae of volleyball players before official matches could prevent muscle damage (CK) with a dose response, establishing a therapeutic window. A professional male volleyball team (12 athletes) was enrolled in this study, and LEDT was applied before 4 matches during a national championship. LEDT used an array of 200 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) arranged in 25 clusters of 4 infrared LEDs (850 ± 20 nm; 130 mW) and 25 clusters of 4 red LEDs (630 ± 10 nm; 80 mW). Athletes were randomized to receive one of four different total doses over each muscle group in a double-blind protocol: 105 J (20 s), 210 J (40 s), 315 J (60 s), and placebo (no light for 30 s). CK in blood was assessed 1 h before and 24 h after each match. LEDT at 210 J avoided significant increases in CK (+10 %; P = 0.993) as well as 315 J (+31 %, P = 0.407). Placebo (0 J) allowed a significant increase in CK (+53 %; P = 0.012) as well as LEDT at 105 J (+59 %; P = 0.001). LEDT prevented significant increases of CK in blood in athletes when applied before official matches with a light dose response of 210–315 J, suggesting athletes might consider applying LEDT before competition.


Photobiomodulation LLLT CK Muscle damage Exercise recovery Muscle performance 



Cleber Ferraresi would like to thank FAPESP for his PhD scholarships (numbers 2010/07194-7 and 2012/05919-0). MR Hamblin was supported by US NIH grant R01AI050875.

Ethical statement

This study was conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and its later amendments and also approved by the Research Ethics Committee for Human Studies of the Federal University of Sao Carlos (number protocol approved 217/2012).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cleber Ferraresi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ricardo Vinicius dos Santos
    • 4
  • Guilherme Marques
    • 4
  • Marcelo Zangrande
    • 4
  • Roberley Leonaldo
    • 4
  • Michael R. Hamblin
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  • Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Electrothermophototherapy, Department of Physical TherapyFederal University of Sao CarlosSao CarlosBrazil
  2. 2.Post-Graduation Program in BiotechnologyFederal University of Sao CarlosSao CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Optics Group, Physics Institute of Sao CarlosUniversity of São PauloSao CarlosBrazil
  4. 4.Sao Bernardo Volleyball TeamSao Bernardo do CampoBrazil
  5. 5.Wellman Center for PhotomedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of DermatologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  7. 7.Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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