This study aimed to evaluate in vitro performance of near-infrared laser transillumination (NIR-LTI) for detecting early occlusal caries in permanent teeth and compare it with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), DIAGNOdent Pen (DDPen), and conventional radiography (CR). Ninety-four occlusal surfaces presenting International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores ranging from 0 to 3 were selected. For the NIR-LTI examination, images were captured using a prototype, which consists of a laser beam (808 nm) and an infrared CCD camera. One occlusal site on each tooth was assessed twice by two examiners. The teeth were prepared histologically and assessed for the presence of early caries. The intraexaminer correlation showed no difference between the NIR-LTI, DDPen, and QLF analytical methods, but all these methods differed from CR. Interexaminer reproducibility was moderate for NIR-LTI, which showed sensitivity (0.68), specificity (0.85), accuracy (0.73), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.76) similar to those of the fluorescence method and different from those of the CR. In conclusion, the performance of NIR-LTI was comparable to that of DDPen and QLF and may therefore be considered a valid and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of incipient lesions on the occlusal surface of permanent teeth.
Dental caries Early diagnosis Fluorescence Dental radiography Transillumination
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors thank São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for its financial support (PIPE-FAPESP 2010/50479-2), and DMC Equipamentos for the use of its prototype.
Conflict of interest
The authors certify that they have no commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the manuscript.
Bader JD, Shugars DA, Bonito AJ (2001) Systematic review of selected dental caries diagnostic and management methods. J Dent Educ 65:960–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
Kühnisch J, Ifland S, Tranaeus S, Hickel R, Stösser L, Heinrich-Weltzien R (2007) In vivo detection of non-cavitated caries lesions on occlusal surfaces by visual inspection and quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Acta Odontol Scand 65:183–188. doi:10.1080/00016350701291685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
De Benedetto MS, Morais CC, Novaes TF, de Almeida Rodrigues J, Braga MM, Mendes FM (2011) Comparing the reliability of a new fluorescence camera with conventional laser fluorescence devices in detecting caries lesions in occlusal and smooth surfaces of primary teeth. Lasers Med Sci 26:157–162. doi:10.1007/s10103-010-0757-1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Huth KC, Neuhaus KW, Gygax M, Bücher K, Crispin A, Paschos E, Hickel R, Lussi A (2008) Clinical performance of a new laser fluorescence device for detection of occlusal caries lesions in permanent molars. J Dent 36:1033–1040. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2008.08.013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Diniz MB, Boldieri T, Rodrigues JA, Santos-Pinto L, Lussi A, Cordeiro RC (2012) The performance of conventional and fluorescence-based methods for occlusal caries detection: an in vivo study with histologic validation. J Am Dent Assoc 143:339–350. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2012.0176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Diniz MB, Sciasci P, Rodrigues JA, Lussi A, Cordeiro RC (2011) Influence of different professional prophylactic methods on fluorescence measurements for detection of occlusal caries. Caries Res 45:264–268. doi:10.1159/000326110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Diniz MB, Lima LM, Eckert G, Zandona AG, Cordeiro RC, Pinto LS (2011) In vitro evaluation of ICDAS and radiographic examination of occlusal surfaces and their association with treatment decisions. Oper Dent 36:133–142. doi:10.2341/10-006-LCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
de Josselin de Jong E, Sundström F, Westerling H, Tranaeus S, ten Bosch JJ, Angmar-Månsson B (1995) A new method for in vivo quantification of changes in initial enamel caries with laser fluorescence. Caries Res 29:2–7. doi:10.1159/000262032CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Alammari MR, Smith PW, de Josselin de Jong E, Higham SM (2013) Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF): a tool for early occlusal dental caries detection and supporting decision making in vivo. J Dent 41:127–132. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2012.08.013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Dias da Silva PR, Martins Marques M, Steagall W Jr, Medeiros Mendes F, Lascala CA (2010) Accuracy of direct digital radiography for detecting occlusal caries in primary teeth compared with conventional radiography and visual inspection: an in vitro study. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 39:362–367. doi:10.1259/dmfr/22865872PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kayipmaz S, Sezgin ÖS, Saricaoğlu ST, Çan G (2011) An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries. Eur J Radiol 80:478–482. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2010.09.011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Teo TK, Ashley PF, Louca C (2014) An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the use of ICDAS, DIAGNOdent pen and CarieScan PRO for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary molar teeth. Clin Oral Investig 18:737–744. doi:10.1007/s00784-013-1021-4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Salsone S, Taylor A, Gomez J, Pretty I, Ellwood R, Dickinson M, Lombardo G, Zakian C (2012) Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification. J Biomed Opt 17:076009. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.17.7.076009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL, Lee C, Kang H, Chan KH (2011) In vivo near-IR imaging of occlusal lesions at 1310-nm. Proc Soc Photo Opt Instrum Eng 7884(78840B). doi:10.1117/12.878888