Effects of pre-irradiation of low-level laser therapy with different doses and wavelengths in skeletal muscle performance, fatigue, and skeletal muscle damage induced by tetanic contractions in rats
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) immediately before tetanic contractions in skeletal muscle fatigue development and possible tissue damage. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control groups and nine active LLLT groups receiving one of three different laser doses (1, 3, and 10 J) with three different wavelengths (660, 830, and 905 nm) before six tetanic contractions induced by electrical stimulation. Skeletal muscle fatigue development was defined by the percentage (%) of the initial force of each contraction and time until 50 % decay of initial force, while total work was calculated for all six contractions combined. Blood and muscle samples were taken immediately after the sixth contraction. Several LLLT doses showed some positive effects on peak force and time to decay for one or more contractions, but in terms of total work, only 3 J/660 nm and 1 J/905 nm wavelengths prevented significantly (p < 0.05) the development of skeletal muscle fatigue. All doses with wavelengths of 905 nm but only the dose of 1 J with 660 nm wavelength decreased creatine kinase (CK) activity (p < 0.05). Qualitative assessment of morphology revealed lesser tissue damage in most LLLT-treated groups, with doses of 1–3 J/660 nm and 1, 3, and 10 J/905 nm providing the best results. Optimal doses of LLLT significantly delayed the development skeletal muscle performance and protected skeletal muscle tissue against damage. Our findings also demonstrate that optimal doses are partly wavelength specific and, consequently, must be differentiated to obtain optimal effects on development of skeletal muscle fatigue and tissue preservation. Our findings also lead us to think that the combined use of wavelengths at the same time can represent a therapeutic advantage in clinical settings.
KeywordsLLLT Skeletal muscle performance Skeletal muscle recovery Sports
Professor Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for research grant number 2010/52404-0. Professor Lucio Frigo would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for research grant number 2012/06832-5. Larissa Aline Santos would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for the master degree scholarship grant number 2012/04295-2.
Conflict of interest
Professor Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior receives research support from Multi Radiance Medical (Solon, OH, USA), a laser device manufacturer. Multi Radiance Medical had no role in the planning of this experiment, and the laser device used was not theirs. They had no influence on study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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