Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 985–991 | Cite as

Effect of laser irradiation on the fluoride uptake of silver diamine fluoride treated dentine

  • May L. Mei
  • Leticia Ito
  • C. F. Zhang
  • Edward C. M. Lo
  • C. H. Chu
Original Article


This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride uptake of dentine treated with a 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution and laser irradiation at sub-ablative energy levels. Fifteen human dentine slices were prepared and divided into four samples each. Four types of laser were chosen: CO2 (10,600 nm), Er:YAG (2,940 nm), Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) and Diode (810 nm). First, the four samples from 12 of the dentine slices were treated with SDF, and then irradiated by one of the four types of laser at three different settings. One sample was untreated and acted as a control. The setting that rendered the highest fluoride uptake was selected. Second, the remaining dentine slices were treated with SDF and irradiated by the four lasers with the selected settings. Fluoride uptake was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry at the dentine surface and up to 20 μm below the surface. The selected settings were CO2 irradiation at 1.0 W for 1 s, Er:YAG irradiation at 0.5 W for 20 s, Nd:YAG irradiation at 2.0 W for 1 s and diode irradiation at 3.0 W for 3 s. The fluoride content (weight %) at the dentine surface following CO2, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG and diode irradiation was 6.91 ± 3.15, 4.09 ± 1.19, 3.35 ± 2.29 and 1.73 ± 1.04, respectively. CO2 and Er:YAG irradiation resulted in higher fluoride uptake than Nd:YAG and diode irradiation at all levels (p < 0.05). CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation rendered higher fluoride uptake in the SDF-treated dentine than Nd:YAG laser and diode laser irradiation.


Laser Prevention Silver diamine fluoride Caries Fluoride uptake Dentine 



This study was supported by the General Research Fund (HKU765111M) of the Research Grants Council, Hong Kong.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


  1. 1.
    Mei ML, Li QL, Chu CH, Lo EC, Samaranayake LP (2013) Antibacterial effects of silver diamine fluoride on multi-species cariogenic biofilm on caries. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 12:4CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chu CH, Lo EC (2008) Promoting caries arrest in children with silver diamine fluoride: a review. Oral Health Prev Dent 6:315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu BY, Lo EC, Chu CH, Lin HC (2012) Randomized trial on fluorides and sealants for fissure caries prevention. J Dent Res 91:753–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu CH, Lo EC, Lin HC (2002) Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children. J Dent Res 81:767–770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Llodra JC, Rodriguez A, Ferrer B, Menardia V, Ramos T, Morato M (2005) Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for caries reduction in primary teeth and first permanent molars of schoolchildren: 36-month clinical trial. J Dent Res 84:721–724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tan HP, Lo EC, Dyson JE, Luo Y, Corbet EF (2010) A randomized trial on root caries prevention in elders. J Dent Res 89:1086–1090CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chu CH, Mei L, Seneviratne CJ, Lo EC (2012) Effects of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesions induced by Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii biofilms. Int J Paediatr Dent 22:2–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mei ML, Chu CH, Low KH, Che CM, Lo EC (2013) Caries arresting effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesion with S. mutans and L. acidophilus dual-species cariogenic biofilm. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 18:e824–e831CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu BY, Lo EC, Li CM (2012) Effect of silver and fluoride ions on enamel demineralization: a quantitative study using micro-computed tomography. Aust Dent J 257:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mei ML, Ito L, Cao Y, Li QL, Lo EC, Chu CH (2013) Inhibitory effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine demineralisation and collagen degradation. J Dent 41:809–817CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gotjamanos T (1996) Pulp response in primary teeth with deep residual caries treated with silver fluoride and glass ionomer cement (‘atraumatic’ technique). Aust Dent J 41:328–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lou YL, Botelho MG, Darvell BW (2011) Reaction of silver diamine [corrected] fluoride with hydroxyapatite and protein. J Dent 39:612–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lambrou D, Larsen MJ, Fejerskov O, Tachos B (1981) The effect of fluoride in saliva on remineralization of dental enamel in humans. Caries Res 15:341–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chu CH, Mei ML, Lo EC (2010) Use of fluorides in dental caries management. Gen Dent 58:37–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iijima Y, Ruben JL, Zuidgeest TG, Arends J (1993) Fluoride and mineral content in hyper-remineralized coronal bovine dentine in vitro after an acid challenge. Caries Res 27:106–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mukai Y, Lagerweij MD, ten Cate JM (2001) Effect of a solution with high fluoride concentration on remineralization of shallow and deep root surface caries in vitro. Caries Res 35:317–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bahar A, Tagomori S (1994) The effect of normal pulsed Nd-YAG laser irradiation on pits and fissures in human teeth. Caries Res 28:460–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hsu SCY, Gao XL, Pang JS, Wefel JS (2004) Effects of CO2 laser on fluoride uptake in enamel. J Dent 32:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vitale MC, Zaffe D, Botticell AR, Caprioglio C (2011) Diode laser irradiation and fluoride uptake in human teeth. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 12:90–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bevilacqua FM, Zezell DM, Magnani R, da Ana PA, Eduardo Cde P (2008) Fluoride uptake and acid resistance of enamel irradiated with Er: YAG laser. Lasers Med Sci 23:141–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gao XL, Pan JS, Hsu CY (2006) Laser-fluoride effect on root demineralization. J Dent Res 85:919–923CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang C, Kimura Y, Matsumoto K (1996) The effects of pulsed Nd: YAG laser irradiation with fluoride on root surface. J Clin Laser Med Surg 14:399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mei ML, Ito L, Chu CH, Lo EC, Zhang CF (2013) Prevention of dentine caries using silver diamine fluoride application followed by Er: YAG laser irradiation: an in vitro study. Lasers Med Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10103-013-1329-y
  24. 24.
    Liu Y, Hsu CY, Teo CM, Teoh SH (2013) Subablative Er: YAG laser effect on enamel demineralization. Caries Res 47:63–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang C, Kimura Y, Matsumoto K, Harashima T, Zhou H (1998) Effects of pulsed Nd: YAG laser irradiation on root canal wall dentin with different laser initiators. J Endod 24:352–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hsu CY, Jordan TH, Dederich DN, Wefel JS (2000) Effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation and the organic matrix on inhibition of enamel demineralization. J Dent Res 79:1725–1730CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Botta SB, Ana PA, de Sa Teixeira F, da Silveira Salvadori MC, Matos AB (2011) Relationship between surface topography and energy density distribution of Er, Cr:YSGG beam on irradiated dentin: an atomic force microscopy study. Photomed Laser Surg 29:261–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Convissar RA (2010) Laser-asssisted nonsurgical periodontal therapy In: Convissar RA (ed) Principles and practice of laser dentisty p 28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • May L. Mei
    • 1
  • Leticia Ito
    • 1
  • C. F. Zhang
    • 1
  • Edward C. M. Lo
    • 1
  • C. H. Chu
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of DentistryThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations