Advertisement

Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 559–564 | Cite as

The effect of 810-nm low-level laser therapy on pain caused by orthodontic elastomeric separators

  • Ladan Eslamian
  • Ali Borzabadi-FarahaniEmail author
  • Aidin Hassanzadeh-Azhiri
  • Mohammad R. Badiee
  • Reza Fekrazad
Original Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 810-nm (DMC Equipamentos, Sao Carlos, Brazil) continuous wave low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the pain caused by orthodontic elastomeric separators. Thirty-seven orthodontic patients (12 male and 25 female, aged 11–32 years, mean age = 24.97 years) participated in the study, including 20 subjects aged 18 years or more, and 17 under 18 years of age. Four elastomeric separators (Dentarum, Springen, Germany) were placed for the first permanent molars (distal and mesial), either for maxillary (22 patients) or mandibular (15 patients) arches; one quadrant was randomly selected and used as a placebo group (received no laser irradiation). After separator placement for each quadrant, patients received 10 doses (2 J/cm2, 100 mW, 20 s) of laser irradiation on the buccal side (at the cervical third of the roots), for distal and mesial of the second premolars and first permanent molars, as well as distal of second permanent molars (five doses). The same procedure was repeated for the lingual or palatal side (five doses). After 24 h, patients returned to the clinic and received another 10 doses of laser irradiation on the same quadrant. Postseparation pain level recorded on a 10-cm visual analog scale for both jaws immediately (hour 0), and after 6, 24, 30 h, as well as on days 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Significant differences in the pain perception (PP) were found between the laser and placebo groups at 6, 24, 30 h, and day 3 of the experiment (P < 0.05). Friedman’s test of multiple comparisons revealed significant differences in the PP among various time intervals for laser (chi-square = 173.407, P = 0.000) and placebo (chi-square = 184.712, P = 0.000) groups. In both groups, pain was highest at 6 and 30 h after placing elastomeric separators. No gender differences were observed in both groups. More pain was recorded in the mandible (P < 0.05) at 24 (laser group) and 30 h (both groups) after starting the experiment. The PP was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the group aged 18 years or more, only at days 3 [both groups] and 4 [laser group only] of the experiment. The 810-nm continuous wave LLLT significantly reduced the PP in the first 3 days after orthodontic separation. However, the mean postseparation PP in both groups was low and wide ranges of PP scores were observed.

Keywords

810 nm Low-level laser therapy Pain Elastomeric orthodontic separators 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present research has been approved and funded by the Directory of Research, Iranian Center for Dental Research, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (grant no. 7956). Dr Borzabadi-Farahani was supported by a research grant from the European Orthodontic Society and a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship from the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.

References

  1. 1.
    Lim HM, Lew KK, Tay DK (1995) A clinical investigation of the efficacy of low level laser therapy in reducing orthodontic postadjustment pain. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 108:614–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mester E, Mester AF, Mester A (1985) The biomedical effects of laser application. Lasers Surg Med 5:31–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rodrigues MTJ, Ribeiro MS, Groth EB, Zezell DM (2002) Evaluation of effects of laser therapy (λ = 830 nm) on oral ulceration induced by fixed orthodontic appliances. Lasers Surg Med 30(suppl14):15Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oudry M, Franquin JC, Pourreau-Schreider N, Martin PM (1988) Effect of a helium-neon laser on cellular growth: an in vitro study of human gingival fibroblasts. J Biol Buccale 16:129–135Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saygun I, Karacay S, Serdar M, Ural AU, Sencimen M, Kurtis B (2008) Effects of laser irradiation on the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and receptor of IGF-1 (IGFBP3) from gingival fibroblasts. Lasers Med Sci 23:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schultz RJ, Krishnamurthy S, Thelmo W, Rodriguez JE, Harvey G (1985) Effects of varying intensities of laser energy on articular cartilage: a preliminary study. Lasers Surg Med 5:577–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balboni GC, Brandi ML, Zonefrati R, Repice F (1986) Effects of He–Ne/IR laser irradiation on two lines of normal human fibroblasts in vitro. Arch Ital Anat Embriol 91:179–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anders JJ, Borke RC, Woolery SK, Van de Merwe WP (1993) Low power laser irradiation alters the rate of regeneration of the rat facial nerve. Lasers Surg Med 13:72–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Trelles MA, Mayayo E (1987) Bone fracture consolidates faster with low-power laser. Lasers Surg Med 7:36–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pinheiro ALB, Gerbi ME (2006) Photoengineering of bone repair processes. Photomed Laser Surg 24:169–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Denadai AS, de Carvalho PT, dos Reis FA, Belchior AC, Pereira DM, Dourado DM, Silva IS, de Oliveira LV (2009) Morphometric and histological analysis of low-power laser influence on bone morphogenetic protein in bone defects repair. Lasers Med Sci 24:689–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Youssef M, Ashkar S, Hamade E, Gutknecht N, Lampert F, Maziar M (2008) The effect of low-level laser therapy during orthodontic movement: a preliminary study. Lasers Med Sci 23:27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kawasaki K, Shimizu N (2000) Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on bone remodeling during experimental tooth movement in rats. Lasers Surg Med 26:282–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cruz DR, Kohara EK, Ribeiro MS, Wetter NU (2004) Effects of low intensity laser therapy on the orthodontic movement velocity of human teeth: a preliminary study. Lasers Surg Med 35:117–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seifi M, Shafeei HA, Daneshdoost S, Mir M (2007) Effects of two types of low-level laser wavelengths (850 and 630 nm) on the orthodontic tooth movements in rabbits. Lasers Med Sci 22:261–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kluemper GT, Hiser DG, Rayens MK, Jay MJ (2002) Efficacy of a wax containing benzocaine in the relief of oral mucosal pain caused by orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 122:359–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krishnan V (2007) Orthodontic pain: from causes to management—a review. Eur J Orthod 29:170–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bergius M, Kiliaridis S, Berggren U (2000) Pain in orthodontics. J Orofac Orthop 61:125–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Polat O, Karaman AI (2005) Pain control during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy. Angle Orthod 75:214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Polat O (2007) Pain and discomfort after orthodontic appointments. Semin Orthod 13:292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang J, Jian F, Chen J, Ye NS, Huang YH, Wang S, Huang RH, Pei J, Liu P, Zhang L, Zhao ZH, Chen QM, Lai WL, Lin YF (2012) Cognitive behavioral therapy for orthodontic pain control: a randomized trial. J Dent Res 91:580–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Doshi-Mehta G, Bhad-Patil WA (2012) Efficacy of low-intensity laser therapy in reducing treatment time and orthodontic pain: a clinical investigation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 141:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Artés-Ribas M, Arnabat-Dominguez J, Puigdollers A (2012) Analgesic effect of a low-level laser therapy (830 nm) in early orthodontic treatment. Lasers Med Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10103-012-1135-y
  24. 24.
    Farzanegan F, Zebarjad SM, Alizadeh S, Ahrari F (2012) Pain reduction after initial archwire placement in orthodontic patients: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 141:169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Angelopoulou MV, Vlachou V, Halazonetis DJ (2012) Pharmacological management of pain during orthodontic treatment: a meta-analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res 15:71–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knop LA, Shintcovsk RL, Retamoso LB, Ribeiro JS, Tanaka OM (2012) Non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory use in the context of orthodontic movement. Eur J Orthod. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjq173
  27. 27.
    Aimbire F, Albertini R, Pacheco MT, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Leonardo PS, Iversen VV, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM (2006) Low-level laser therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of TNF alpha levels in acute inflammation. Photomed Laser Surg 24:33–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chow R, Armati P, Laakso EL, Bjordal JM, Baxter GD (2011) Inhibitory effects of laser irradiation on peripheral mammalian nerves and relevance to analgesic effects: a systematic review. Photomed Laser Surg 29:365–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fujiyama K, Deguchi T, Murakami T, Fujii A, Kushima K, Takano-Yamamoto T (2008) Clinical effect of CO2 laser in reducing pain in orthodontics. Angle Orthod 78:299–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Castano AP, Dai T, Yaroslavsky I, Cohen R, Apruzzese WA, Smotrich MH, Hamblin MR (2007) Low-level laser therapy for zymosan-induced arthritis in rats: importance of illumination time. Lasers Surg Med 39:543–550PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fujita S, Yamaguchi M, Utsunomiya T, Yamamoto H, Kasai K (2008) Low-energy laser stimulates tooth movement velocity via expression of RANK and RANKL. Orthod Craniofac Res 11:143–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saito S, Shimizu N (1997) Stimulatory effects of low-power laser irradiation on bone regeneration in midpalatal suture during expansion in the rat. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 111:525–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marcos RL, Leal Junior EC, Messias Fde M, de Carvalho MH, Pallotta RC, Frigo L, dos Santos RA, Ramos L, Teixeira S, Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RÁ (2011) Infrared (810 nm) low-level laser therapy in rat achilles tendinitis: a consistent alternative to drugs. Photochem Photobiol 87:1447–1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shimizu N, Yamaguchi M, Goseki T, Shibata Y, Takiguchi H, Iwasawa T, Abiko Y (1995) Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1-beta production by low-power laser irradiation in stretched human periodontal ligament cells. J Dent Res 74:1382–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Turhani D, Scheriau M, Kapral D, Benesch T, Jonke E, Bantleon HP (2006) Pain relief by single low-level laser irradiation in orthodontic patients undergoing fixed appliance therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 130:371–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tortamano A, Lenzi DC, Haddad ACSS, Bottino MC, Dominguez GC, Vigorito JW (2009) Low-level laser for pain caused by placement of the first orthodontic archwire: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136:662–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Esper MA, Nicolau RA, Arisawa EA (2011) The effect of two phototherapy protocols on pain control in orthodontic procedure—a preliminary clinical study. Lasers Med Sci 26:657–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bernhardt MK, Southard KA, Batterson KD, Logan HL, Baker KA, Jakobsen JR (2001) The effect of preemptive and/or postoperative ibuprofen therapy for orthodontic pain. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 120:20–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    OtasevicM NFB, Gill DS, Lee RT (2006) Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of a masticatory bite wafer and avoidance of hard food on pain associated with initial orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 130:e9–e15Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eslamian L, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Badiee MR, Hassanzadeh-Azhiri A, Lynch E, Mortazavi A (2013) The analgesic effect of benzocaine mucoadhesive patches on orthodontic pain caused by elastomeric separators, a preliminary study. Acta Odontol Scand. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2012.757358
  41. 41.
    Fillingim RB (2000) Sex, gender, and pain: women and men really are different. Curr Rev Pain 4:24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chiu YH, Silman AJ, Macfarlane GJ, Ray D, Gupta A, Dickens C, Morriss R, McBeth J (2005) Poor sleep and depression are independently associated with a reduced pain threshold. Results of a population based study. Pain 115:316–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rhudy JL, Meagher MW (2000) Fear and anxiety: divergent effects on human pain thresholds. Pain 84:65–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bjordal JM, Johnson MI, Iversen V, Aimbire F, Lopes-Martins RAB (2006) Low-level laser therapy in acute pain: a systematic review of possible mechanisms of action and clinical effects in randomized placebo-controlled trials. Photomed Laser Surg 24:158–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goulart CS, Nouer PRA, Martins LM, Garbin IU, Lizarelli RFZ (2006) Photoradiation and orthodontic movement: experimental study with canines. Photomed Laser Surg 24:192–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saito S, Mikikawa Y, Usui M, Mikawa M, Yamasaki K, Inoue T, Shibasaki Y (2002) Clinical application of a pressure-sensitive occlusal sheet for tooth pain. Time-dependent pain associated with a multi-bracket system and the inhibition of pain by laser irradiation. Orthod Waves 61:31–39Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bondemark L, Fredriksson K, Ilros S (2004) Separation effect and perception of pain and discomfort from two types of orthodontic separators. World J Orthod 5:172–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Turner JA, Deyo RA, Loeser JD, Von Korff M, Fordyce WE (1994) The importance of placebo effects in pain treatment and research. JAMA 271:1609–1614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ngan P, Kess B, Wilson S (1989) Perception of discomfort by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 96:47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Giannopoulou C, Dudic A, Kiliaridis S (2006) Pain discomfort and crevicular fluid changes induced by orthodontic elastic separators in children. J Pain 7:367–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yamaguchi M, Yoshii M, Kasai K (2006) Relationship between substance P and interleukin-1 B in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement in adults. Eur J Orthod 28:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bicakci AA, Kocoglu-Altan B, Toker H, Mutaf I, Sumer Z (2012) Efficiency of low-level laser therapy in reducing pain induced by orthodontic forces. Photomed Laser Surg 30:460–465Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ladan Eslamian
    • 1
  • Ali Borzabadi-Farahani
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Aidin Hassanzadeh-Azhiri
    • 5
  • Mohammad R. Badiee
    • 5
  • Reza Fekrazad
    • 6
  1. 1.Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Department of Orthodontics, School of DentistryShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Warwick Dentistry, Warwick Medical SchoolUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  3. 3.Formerly, Craniofacial Orthodontics, Division of DentistryChildren’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA)Los AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology (CCMB)University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Formerly, Department of Orthodontics, School of DentistryShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Dentistry, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Laser Research Center, Dental Faculty, TehranUniversity of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations