Advertisement

Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1305–1313 | Cite as

Infrared low-level diode laser on inflammatory process modulation in mice: pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines

  • Thiago Y. Fukuda
  • Maury M. Tanji
  • Suélen R. Silva
  • Maria N. Sato
  • Hélio Plapler
Original Article

Abstract

To evaluate the modulation of proinflammatory (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; and interferon-γ, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1, TGF-β1) in the inflammation processes in vivo with low-level laser action, 50 isogenic mice were randomly distributed into three groups: control (no surgical procedure, n = 10), sham (surgical procedure with three standard cutaneous incisions, followed by an abdominal muscle incision and suture, n = 20), and laser (same procedure followed by laser exposure, n = 20). The sham group was divided into three subgroups: sham I (euthanasia and evaluation, 36 h after surgical procedure), sham II (euthanasia and evaluation, 60 h after surgical procedure), and sham III (euthanasia and evaluation, 84 h after surgical procedure). The laser group was also divided in three subgroups: laser I (a single laser session, 12 h after surgery), laser II (two laser sessions, 12 and 36 h after surgery), and laser III (three laser sessions, 12, 36, and 60 h after surgery). All animals in the laser groups received three points per session of continuous infrared laser (wavelength of 780 nm, power of 20 mW, fluency of 10 J/cm2, exposure time of 20 s per point, and energy of 0.4 J). After euthanasia, spleen mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured for 48 h. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 were obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was a significant difference between the IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in the 60-and 84-h evaluations when the laser and sham groups were compared to the control group (p < 0.05), except for laser II in the TNF-α analysis (p > 0.05). The IFN-γ concentration analysis showed a significant difference only in sham II when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Thus, there was a modulatory effect of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the laser group, particularly in the 60-h postoperative evaluation. There was no significant difference between the laser, sham, and control groups for TGF-β1 analysis (p > 0.05). The low-level laser application decreased the TNF-α and IFN-γ release in vivo of spleen mononuclear cells in mice, especially after two exposure sessions. However, there was no modulation of the IL-6 and TGF-β1 release.

Keywords

Cytokines Inflammation Healing Low-level laser therapy 

References

  1. 1.
    Karu T (1989) Photobiology of low-power laser effects. Heal Phys 56(5):691–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kitchen SS, Partridge CJ (1991) A review of low level laser therapy. Physiotherapy 77(3):161–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bjordal JM, Johnson MI, Iversen V, Aimbire F, Lopes-Martins RAB (2006) Low-level laser therapy in acute pain: a systematic review of possible mechanisms of action and clinical effects in randomized placebo-controlled trials. Photomed Laser Surg 24(2):158–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adams DH, Lloyd AR (1997) Chemokines: leucocyte recruitment and activation cytokines. Lancet 349:490–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Naoum PC (2001) Avanços tecnológicos em hematologia laboratorial. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 23(2):111–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gulsoy M, Ozer GH, Bozkulak O, Tabakoglu HO, Aktas E, Deniz G et al (2006) The biological effects of 632.8-nm low energy He-Ne laser on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. J Photochem Photob B Biol 82:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pereira NA, Eduardo CP, Matson E, Marques MM (2002) Effect of low-power laser irradiation on cell growth and procollagen synthesis of cultured fibroblasts. Lasers Surg Med 31:263–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dube A, Bansal H, Gupta PK (2003) Modulation of macrophage structure and function by low level He-Ne laser irradiation. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2:851–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouma MG, Buurman WA, Wildenberg AJM (1998) Low energy laser irradiation fails to modulate the inflammatory function of human monocytes and endothelial cells. Lasers Surg Med 19(2):207–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kruchenok JV, Bushuk SB, Kurilo GI, Nemkovich NA, Rubinov AN (2005) Orientation of red blood cells and roleaux disaggregation in interference laser fields. J Biol Phys 31:73–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sandoval-Ortiz MC, Mattiello-Rosa SM, Soares EG, Parizotto NA (2003) Influência do laser de baixa potência nos níveis das proteínas plasmáticas de coelhos. Rev Bras Fisiot 7(3):187–94Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ihsan FRM (2005) Low level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates collateral circulation and enhances microcirculation. Photomed Laser Surg 23(3):289–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Safavi SM, Kazemi B, Esmaeili M, Fallah A, Modarresi A, Mir M (2008) Effects of low level He-Ne laser irradiation on the gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, bFGF and PDGF in rat’s gingiva. Lasers Med Sci 23:331–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhevago NA, Samoilova KA (2006) Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine content in human peripheral blood alter its transcutaneous (in vivo) and direct (in vitro) irradiation with polychromatic visible and infrared light. Photomed Laser Surg 24(2):129–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schroder AK, Ohe M, Kolling U, Alstaedt J, Uciechowski P, Fleischer D et al (2006) Polymorphonuclear leucocytes selectively produce anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and chemokines, but fail to produce pro-inflammatory mediators. Immunology 119:317–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hrabak A, Bajor T, Csuka I (2008) The effect of various inflammatory agents on the phagocytosis and cytokine profile of mouse and rat macrophages. Inflamm Res 57:75–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Albertini R, Villaverde AB, Aimbire F, Bjordal J, Brugnera A, Mittmann J et al (2008) Cytokine mRNA expression is decreased in the subplantar muscle of rat paw subjected to carrageenan-induced inflammation after low-level laser therapy. Photomed Laser Surg 26(1):19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamaura M, Yao M, Yaroslavsky I, Cohen R, Smotrich M, Kochevar IE (2009) Low level light effects on inflammatory cytokine production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Lasers Surg Med 41:282–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Correa F, Lopes Martins RAB, Correa JC, Iversen VV, Joenson J, Bjordal JM (2007) Low level laser therapy (GaAs λ = 904 nm) reduces inflammatory cell migration in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis. Photomed Laser Surg 25(4):245–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demidova-Rice TN, Salomatina EV, Yaroslavsky AN, Herman IM, Hamblin MR (2007) Low-level light stimulates excisional wound healing in mice. Lasers Surg Med 39:706–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gungormus M, Akyol U (2009) The effect of gallium-aluminum-arsenide 808-nm low-level laser therapy on healing of skin incisions made using a diode laser. Photomed Laser Surg 27(6):895–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rochkind S, Rousso M, Nissan M, Villarreal M, Barr-Nea L, Rees DG (1989) Systemic effects of low-power laser irradiation on the peripheral and central nervous system, cutaneous wound, and burns. Lasers Surg Med 9:174–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodrigo SM, Cunha A, Pozza DH, Blaya DS, Moraes JF, Weber JBB et al (2009) Analysis of the systemic effect of red and infrared laser therapy on wound repair. Photomed Laser Surg 27(6):929–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Funk JO, Kruse A, Kirchner H (1992) Cytokine production after helium-neon laser irradiation in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Photochem Photobiol B 16(3–4):347–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fukuda TY, Tanji MM, Jesus JF, Sato MN, Duarte AJS, Plapler H (2010) Single session to infrared low level diode laser on TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines release by mononuclear spleen cells in mice: a pilot study. Lasers Surg Med 42:584–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fukuda TY, Jesus JF, Santos MG, Cazarini C Jr, Tanji MM, Plapler H (2010) Calibration of low-level laser therapy equipment. Rev Bras Fisioter 14(4):303–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferreira MC, Brito VN, Gameiro J, Costa MRS, Vasconcellos ECS, Cruz-Hofling MAC (2006) Effects of HeNe laser irradiation on experimental paracoccidioidomycotic lesions. J Photochem Photob B Biol 84:141–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hopkins JT, McLoda TA, Seegmiller JG, Baxter GD (2004) Low-level laser therapy facilitates superficial wound healing in humans: a triple-blind, sham-controlled study. J Athl Train 39(3):223–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Cherenkov DA, Chudnovsky VM, Fesenko EE (2006) Effects of low-power laser radiation on mice immunity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 22:33–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hawkins D, Abrahamse H (2007) Phototherapy—a treatment modality for wound healing and pain relief. African J Biomed Res 10:99–109Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aimbire F, Albertini R, Pacheco MTT, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Leonardo PSL, Iversen VV (2006) Low-level laser therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of TNF-alpha levels in acute inflammation. Photomed Laser Surg 24(1):33–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eberle T, Doganci B, Kramer H, Fechir M, Wagner I, Sommer C et al (2010) Mechanical but not painful electrical stimuli trigger TNF alpha release in human skin. Exp Neurol 221:246–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hernandez ME, Becerril E, Perez M, Leff P, Anton B, Estrada S et al (2010) Proinflammatory cytokine levels in fibromyalgia patients are independent of body mass index. BMC Research Notes 3:156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mafra de Lima F, Costa MS, Albertini R, Silva JA Jr, Aimbire F (2009) Low level laser therapy (LLLT): attenuation of cholinergic hyperreactivity, β-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness and TNF-α mRNA expression in rat bronchi segments in E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation by a NF-κB dependent mechanism. Lasers Surg Med 41:68–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kandolf-Sekulovic L, Kataranovski M, Pavlovic MD (2003) Immunomodulatory effects of low-intensity near-infrared laser irradiation on contact hypersensitivity reaction. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 19:203–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gavish L, Perez LS, Reissman P, Gertz D (2008) Irradiation with 780 nm diode laser attenuates inflammatory cytokines but upregulates nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages: implications for the prevention of aneurysm progression. Lasers Surg Med 40:371–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pober JS, Cotran RS (1990) The role of endothelial cells in inflammation. Transplantation 50(4):537–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lopes-Martins RAB, Albertini R, Martins PSLL, Bjordal JM, Neto HCCF (2005) Spontaneous effects of low-level laser therapy (650 nm) in acute inflammatory mouse pleurisy induced by carrageenan. Photomed Laser Surg 23(4):377–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kramer M, Dadon S, Hasanreisoglu M, Monselise A, Avraham BR, Feldman A et al (2009) Proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of central retinal artery occlusion. Mol Vis 15:885–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Albertini R, Aimbire FSC, Correa FI, Ribeiro W, Cogo JC, Antunes E et al (2004) Effects of different protocol doses of low Power gallium-aluminum-arsenate (Ga-Al-As) laser radiation (650 nm) on carrageenan induced rat paw oedema. J Photochem Photob B Biol 74:101–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Aimbire F, Lopes-Martins RAB, Albertini R, Pacheco MTT, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Martins PSLL et al (2007) Effect of low-level laser therapy on hemorrhagic lesions induced by immune complex in rat lungs. Photomed Laser Surg 25(2):112–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nussbaum EL, Mazzulli T, Pritzker KPH, Las Heras F, Jing F, Lilge L (2009) Effects of low intensity laser irradiation during healing of skin lesions in the rat. Lasers Surg Med 41:372–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thiago Y. Fukuda
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maury M. Tanji
    • 4
    • 5
  • Suélen R. Silva
    • 5
  • Maria N. Sato
    • 4
  • Hélio Plapler
    • 2
  1. 1.Physical Therapy SectorIrmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo (ISCMSP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Experimental SurgeryFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.São PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Medical Investigation in Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies—LIM-56FMUSPSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Universidade do Grande ABCSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations