Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1305–1313 | Cite as

Infrared low-level diode laser on inflammatory process modulation in mice: pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines

  • Thiago Y. Fukuda
  • Maury M. Tanji
  • Suélen R. Silva
  • Maria N. Sato
  • Hélio Plapler
Original Article


To evaluate the modulation of proinflammatory (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; and interferon-γ, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1, TGF-β1) in the inflammation processes in vivo with low-level laser action, 50 isogenic mice were randomly distributed into three groups: control (no surgical procedure, n = 10), sham (surgical procedure with three standard cutaneous incisions, followed by an abdominal muscle incision and suture, n = 20), and laser (same procedure followed by laser exposure, n = 20). The sham group was divided into three subgroups: sham I (euthanasia and evaluation, 36 h after surgical procedure), sham II (euthanasia and evaluation, 60 h after surgical procedure), and sham III (euthanasia and evaluation, 84 h after surgical procedure). The laser group was also divided in three subgroups: laser I (a single laser session, 12 h after surgery), laser II (two laser sessions, 12 and 36 h after surgery), and laser III (three laser sessions, 12, 36, and 60 h after surgery). All animals in the laser groups received three points per session of continuous infrared laser (wavelength of 780 nm, power of 20 mW, fluency of 10 J/cm2, exposure time of 20 s per point, and energy of 0.4 J). After euthanasia, spleen mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured for 48 h. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 were obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was a significant difference between the IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in the 60-and 84-h evaluations when the laser and sham groups were compared to the control group (p < 0.05), except for laser II in the TNF-α analysis (p > 0.05). The IFN-γ concentration analysis showed a significant difference only in sham II when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Thus, there was a modulatory effect of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the laser group, particularly in the 60-h postoperative evaluation. There was no significant difference between the laser, sham, and control groups for TGF-β1 analysis (p > 0.05). The low-level laser application decreased the TNF-α and IFN-γ release in vivo of spleen mononuclear cells in mice, especially after two exposure sessions. However, there was no modulation of the IL-6 and TGF-β1 release.


Cytokines Inflammation Healing Low-level laser therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thiago Y. Fukuda
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maury M. Tanji
    • 4
    • 5
  • Suélen R. Silva
    • 5
  • Maria N. Sato
    • 4
  • Hélio Plapler
    • 2
  1. 1.Physical Therapy SectorIrmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo (ISCMSP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Experimental SurgeryFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.São PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Medical Investigation in Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies—LIM-56FMUSPSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Universidade do Grande ABCSão PauloBrazil

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